“在家赚钱 +我们如何在家工作到2016年开始”

Tatarkiewicz, Władysław, O doskonałości (On Perfection), Warsaw, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1976; English translation by Christopher Kasparek subsequently serialized in Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. VI, no. 4 (autumn 1979)—vol. VIII, no 2 (spring 1981), and reprinted in Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection, Warsaw University Press, Center of Universalism, 1992, pp. 9–51 (the book is a collection of papers by and about Professor Tatarkiewicz).

In recent decades, prominent advocates of such “non-transparent” translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman, who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,[31] and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti, who has called on translators to apply “foreignizing” rather than domesticating translation strategies.[32]

From Anglo-Norman translacioun, from Old French translacion (“transfer, translation”), from Latin trānslātiō (“transfer”), from trans- (“across”), + lātiō (“carrying”), from lātus, perfect passive participle of irregular verb ferō (compare transfer), + noun of action suffix -iō.

^ W.S. Merwin: To Plant a Tree: one-hour documentary shown on PBS. Elsewhere Merwin recalls Pound saying: “[A]t your age you don’t have anything to write about. You may think you do, but you don’t. So get to work translating. The Provençal is the real source….” Ange Mlinko, “Whole Earth Troubador” (review of The Essential W.S. Merlin, edited by Michael Wiegers, Copper Canyon, 338 pp., 2017), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 19 (7 December 2017), p. 45.

Web-based human translation is generally favored by companies and individuals that wish to secure more accurate translations. In view of the frequent inaccuracy of machine translations, human translation remains the most reliable, most accurate form of translation available.[64] With the recent emergence of translation crowdsourcing,[65][66] translation-memory techniques, and internet applications,[67] translation agencies have been able to provide on-demand human-translation services to businesses, individuals, and enterprises.

Another imponderable is how to imitate the 1-2, 1-2-3 rhythm in which five-syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read. Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting. Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable (character) belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring.[21]

Our company’s core mission is very simple: “To convey the World’s information”. We all share a passion for languages and aim to use the latest innovations in technology to solve the most challenging problems pertaining to localization, internationalization and globalization of information. Our team is comprised by veterans of the localization industry. We bring our broad expertise and passion to each project.

Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary, religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide “local color”.

Some days later, in bed, I began reading it. The shock was tremendous, disorienting. “This strange new feeling of mine, obsessing me by its sweet languor, is such that I am reluctant to dignify it with the fine, solemn name of ‘sadness’,” went the first sentence, which sounded to my ears a little as though a robot had written it. For a while I pressed on, telling myself it was stupid to cling to only one version, as if it were a sacred thing, and that perhaps I would soon fall in love with this no doubt very clever and more accurate new translation. Pretty soon, though, I gave up. However syntactically correct it might be, the prose had for me lost all of its magic. It was as if I’d gone out to buy a silk party dress and come home with a set of nylon overalls.

Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom. John Dryden (1631–1700) writes in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:

By contrast, “formal equivalence” (sought via “literal” translation) attempts to render the text literally, or “word for word” (the latter expression being itself a word-for-word rendering of the classical Latin verbum pro verbo)—if necessary, at the expense of features natural to the target language.

Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”. He published his back-translation in a 1903 volume together with his English-language original, the French translation, and a “Private History of the ‘Jumping Frog’ Story”. The latter included a synopsized adaptation of his story that Twain stated had appeared, unattributed to Twain, in a Professor Sidgwick’s Greek Prose Composition (p. 116) under the title, “The Athenian and the Frog”; the adaptation had for a time been taken for an independent ancient Greek precursor to Twain’s “Jumping Frog” story.[37]

Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges. Especially after the Renaissance, Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins. Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions.

Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments. Also, though heavily influenced by Western traditions and practiced by translators taught in Western-style educational systems, Chinese and related translation traditions retain some theories and philosophies unique to the Chinese tradition.

Unedited machine translation is publicly available through tools on the Internet such as Google Translate, Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict. These produce rough translations that, under favorable circumstances, “give the gist” of the source text.

The first fine translations into English were made in the 14th century by Geoffrey Chaucer, who adapted from the Italian of Giovanni Boccaccio in his own Knight’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde; began a translation of the French-language Roman de la Rose; and completed a translation of Boethius from the Latin. Chaucer founded an English poetic tradition on adaptations and translations from those earlier-established literary languages.[77]

The Elizabethan period of translation saw considerable progress beyond mere paraphrase toward an ideal of stylistic equivalence, but even to the end of this period, which actually reached to the middle of the 17th century, there was no concern for verbal accuracy.[78]

Translation of sung texts is generally much more restrictive than translation of poetry, because in the former there is little or no freedom to choose between a versified translation and a translation that dispenses with verse structure. One might modify or omit rhyme in a singing translation, but the assignment of syllables to specific notes in the original musical setting places great challenges on the translator. There is the option in prose sung texts, less so in verse, of adding or deleting a syllable here and there by subdividing or combining notes, respectively, but even with prose the process is almost like strict verse translation because of the need to stick as closely as possible to the original prosody of the sung melodic line.

^ Walter Kaiser, “A Hero of Translation” (a review of Jean Findlay, Chasing Lost Time: The Life of C.K. Scott Moncrieff: Soldier, Spy, and Translator), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 55.

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[78]

Where I have taken away some of [the original authors’] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[30]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Will I ever meet her? I don’t know. I’ve sort of lost interest in that! I guess I have such a strong impression of her from having read her books so many times. I have a close relationship with her, even though I actually have no relationship with her. I’ve just translated Frantumaglia, a collection of her letters, interviews, and more personal essays. It gives a strong sense of her as someone very intelligent, who thinks about things in her own way, who has read a lot, and who is able to use that in a way that isn’t obtrusive. She is very analytical, and critical, knows her own mind, doesn’t want to waste time. If I got an email from her asking to meet up? Yes, it would send me into a bit of a spin. I’d have to practise my Italian for one thing. RC

Interpreters have sometimes played crucial roles in history. A prime example is La Malinche, also known as Malintzin, Malinalli and Doña Marina, an early-16th-century Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast. As a child she had been sold or given to Maya slave-traders from Xicalango, and thus had become bilingual. Subsequently, given along with other women to the invading Spaniards, she became instrumental in the Spanish conquest of Mexico, acting as interpreter, adviser, intermediary and lover to Hernán Cortés.[61]

I get on very well with Karl Ove. I originally sent him 50 or 60 pages of the first novel and asked if I’d got the tone and voice right. He wrote back and said, “Yes, that’s me.” After that, he said he didn’t want to be on my back. I’ve asked him questions about bits and pieces but he doesn’t really get involved. But he has looked at the books, and wherever he goes, of course, he has to read sections out, so it’s important that he can feel the same kind of rhythms as when he wrote them. Kathryn Bromwich

Our translation team is comprised of in-house and freelance linguists, translators, proofreaders, translation quality assurance managers, and web programmers with a solid professional background in language translation and interpreting. We only use native translators to ensure accurate localization, and each translator that works for us undergoes a strict screening process in order to keep our standards of quality high. Our translators focus in the fields of medical, technology, and patent translations to ensure that even specialized documents retain the proper professional language and tone.

Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—”literal” where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial “values” (e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.[9]

Then a friend who was editing a magazine asked me to translate a piece by an Argentine writer named Macedonio Fernández, and I said “Ronald I’m not a translator, I’m a critic”, and he said: “Edie, call yourself whatever you want, just do the damn piece.” And so I did the piece. Macedonio was the most eccentric man and writer one can possibly imagine. I translated this piece called “The surgery of psychic extirpation”. And I mean it was wonderful. This was a procedure whereby you could have certain portions of your memory excised. It’s right out of a TV science fiction. And I thought to sit at home and translate it was more fun than playing with monkeys. I didn’t have to get dressed to go to work. I could smoke all I wanted. And I thought, this is perfect, this is a perfect way for me to work. And so I began to do more and more.

Vladimir Nabokov, another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson’s. He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his 1964 English translation of Alexander Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin in prose.

The app itself is amazing, however recently new translation apps have allowed one to simply type what they wish to translate into their messaging system(such as iMessages or WhatsApp)and it automatically translates it into the language you want with a simple click of the button… this is helpful when speaking to a person from another country. I like Google translate more than those apps, and feel they could do a better job then those apps. The apps I’m speaking of have subscription fees, I don’t believe this is the right way to do it because they turn many people from the app, and a down payment (if absolutely necessary) would be a much more attractive alternative. I suggest to Google that if you read this to take these words into mind when thinking on how to make the app significantly better than it already is.

While not instantaneous like its machine counterparts such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish, web-based human translation has been gaining popularity by providing relatively fast, accurate translation for business communications, legal documents, medical records, and software localization.[68] Web-based human translation also appeals to private website users and bloggers.[69]

Modern translation is applicable to any language with a long literary history. For example, in Japanese the 11th-century Tale of Genji is generally read in modern translation (see “Genji: modern readership”).

A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings, depending on context. This is said to be a linguistic feature, particularly of all Semitic languages, that adds to the usual similar difficulties encountered in translating between any two languages.[93] There is always an element of human judgment—of interpretation—involved in understanding and translating a text. Muslims regard any translation of the Quran as but one possible interpretation of the Quranic (Classical) Arabic text, and not as a full equivalent of that divinely communicated original. Hence such a translation is often called an “interpretation” rather than a translation.[94]

“从家庭卡拉OK +在家工作07726”

^ Perry Link, “A Magician of Chinese Poetry” (review of Eliot Weinberger, with an afterword by Octavio Paz, 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei (with More Ways), New Directions, 88 pp., $10.95 [paper]; and Eliot Weinberger, The Ghosts of Birds, New Directions, 211 pp., $16.95 [paper]), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), pp. 49–50.

I think I enjoy Don Quixote more than any other book. I just fell in love with that novel over and over again. At the beginning of the 00s, I was terrified and excited at the prospect of translating it. I mentioned I was doing it in a note to García Márquez; later, when I spoke to him on the telephone, his first words to me were: “So I hear you’re two-timing me with Cervantes.”

Fidelity (or “faithfulness”) and transparency, dual ideals in translation, are often (though not always) at odds. A 17th-century French critic coined the phrase “les belles infidèles” to suggest that translations, like women, can be either faithful or beautiful, but not both.[29]

Christopher de Bellaigue, “Dreams of Islamic Liberalism” (review of Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950, University of Chicago Press, 439 pp., $45.00), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Conrad thought C.K. Scott Moncrieff’s English translation of Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time—or, in Scott Moncrieff’s rendering, Remembrance of Things Past) to be preferable to the French original.[50][51]

The app itself is amazing, however recently new translation apps have allowed one to simply type what they wish to translate into their messaging system(such as iMessages or WhatsApp)and it automatically translates it into the language you want with a simple click of the button… this is helpful when speaking to a person from another country. I like Google translate more than those apps, and feel they could do a better job then those apps. The apps I’m speaking of have subscription fees, I don’t believe this is the right way to do it because they turn many people from the app, and a down payment (if absolutely necessary) would be a much more attractive alternative. I suggest to Google that if you read this to take these words into mind when thinking on how to make the app significantly better than it already is.

Request : I’d like to see external app usefulness – let it translate stuff that I highlight in other apps such as email or text messages, without the need to copy, change apps, and paste for my translation.

With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with reworking of the machine translation by a human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system.[71]

John Dryden (1631–1700), the dominant English-language literary figure of his age, illustrates, in his use of back-translation, translators’ influence on the evolution of languages and literary styles. Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.[39][40] Dryden created the proscription against “preposition stranding” in 1672 when he objected to Ben Jonson’s 1611 phrase, “the bodies that those souls were frighted from”, though he did not provide the rationale for his preference.[41] Dryden often translated his writing into Latin, to check whether his writing was concise and elegant, Latin being considered an elegant and long-lived language with which to compare; then he back-translated his writing back to English according to Latin-grammar usage. As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions, subsequently adopted by other writers.[42][43]

Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden (1631–1700), who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, the target language, “counterparts,” or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language:

It is also necessary to describe the samples used in this process (i.e. the composition of the expert panel and the pre-test respondent samples). For the latter, the number of individuals as well as their basic characteristics should be described, as appropriate.

Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them. The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music. In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know (or do not know well), and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing.

alter, change, modify – cause to change; make different; cause a transformation; “The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city”; “The discussion has changed my thinking about the issue”

The Arabs undertook large-scale efforts at translation. Having conquered the Greek world, they made Arabic versions of its philosophical and scientific works. During the Middle Ages, translations of some of these Arabic versions were made into Latin, chiefly at Córdoba in Spain.[77] King Alfonso X el Sabio (Alphonse the Wise) of Castille in the 13th century promoted this effort by founding a Schola Traductorum (School of Translation) in Toledo. There Arabic texts, Hebrew texts, and Latin texts were translated into the other tongues by Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars, who also argued the merits of their respective religions. Latin translations of Greek and original Arab works of scholarship and science helped advance European Scholasticism, and thus European science and culture.

Ruthven, Malise, “The Islamic Road to the Modern World” (review of Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Struggle between Faith and Reason, 1798 to Modern Times, Liveright; and Wael Abu-‘Uksa, Freedom in the Arab World: Concepts and Ideologies in Arabic Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), pp. 22, 24–25.

Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary, religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide “local color”.

George Szirtes is a poet and translator. Born in Budapest in 1948, he came to England as a refugee aged eight and learned Hungarian again as an adult. He has translated many Hungarian writers including Imre Madách, Sándor Márai and László Krasznahorkai (winner of the 2015 Man Booker International). He won the Dery prize for his translation of Madách’s The Tragedy of Man and the European Poetry Translation prize for Rakovsky’s New Life.

When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language. Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are “untranslatable” among the modern European languages.[9][13]

“最好的赚钱方式 |在家工作08008”

The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther (1483–1546), is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. L.G. Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, “it has been axiomatic” that one translates only toward his own language.[16]

A major law firm faced a tough challenge as they prepared for complex litigation in a international fraud case requiring the translation of boxes and boxes of evidence from Spanish into English as part of the discovery process. Read On

It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects; the reader or listener infers a subject. Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Most of the translators cited in Eliot Weinberger’s 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei supply a subject. Weinberger points out, however, that when an “I” as a subject is inserted, a “controlling individual mind of the poet” enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line. Without a subject, he writes, “the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader.” Another approach to the subjectlessness is to use the target language’s passive voice; but this again particularizes the experience too much.[22]

Tatarkiewicz, Władysław, O doskonałości (On Perfection), Warsaw, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1976; English translation by Christopher Kasparek subsequently serialized in Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. VI, no. 4 (autumn 1979)—vol. VIII, no 2 (spring 1981), and reprinted in Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection, Warsaw University Press, Center of Universalism, 1992, pp. 9–51 (the book is a collection of papers by and about Professor Tatarkiewicz).

Once the untranslatables have been set aside, the problems for a translator, especially of Chinese poetry, two: What does the translator think the poetic line says? And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language? Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, “where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate.” Almost always at the center is the letter-versus-spirit dilemma. At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem. “The dissection, though,” writes Link, “normally does to the art of a poem approximately what the scalpel of an anatomy instructor does to the life of a frog.”[21]

The app itself is amazing, however recently new translation apps have allowed one to simply type what they wish to translate into their messaging system(such as iMessages or WhatsApp)and it automatically translates it into the language you want with a simple click of the button… this is helpful when speaking to a person from another country. I like Google translate more than those apps, and feel they could do a better job then those apps. The apps I’m speaking of have subscription fees, I don’t believe this is the right way to do it because they turn many people from the app, and a down payment (if absolutely necessary) would be a much more attractive alternative. I suggest to Google that if you read this to take these words into mind when thinking on how to make the app significantly better than it already is.

Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called “computer-aided translation,” “machine-aided human translation” (MAHT) and “interactive translation,” is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.

Conrad thought C.K. Scott Moncrieff’s English translation of Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time—or, in Scott Moncrieff’s rendering, Remembrance of Things Past) to be preferable to the French original.[50][51]

^ Cited by Kasparek, “The Translator’s Endless Toil”, p. 87, from Ignacy Krasicki, “O tłumaczeniu ksiąg” (“On Translating Books”), in Dzieła wierszem i prozą (Works in Verse and Prose), 1803, reprinted in Edward Balcerzan, ed., Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), p. 79.

Balcerzan, Edward, ed. (1977). Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440-1974: Antologia [Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440-1974: an Anthology] (in Polish). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. OCLC 4365103.

Modern translation meets with opposition from some traditionalists. In English, some readers prefer the Authorized King James Version of the Bible to modern translations, and Shakespeare in the original of c. 1600 to modern translations.

Of the four of us who walked across the border into Austria in 1956 only my father spoke English. What he spoke, he remembered from his school days. I had a bilingual edition of AA Milne’s Now We Are Six from which I had learned the useful words and, but, so…

In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language… was constantly renewing itself to fit modern ways of living. Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: the word for airplane, for example, has the same root as the word for bird.[25]

By contrast, “formal equivalence” (sought via “literal” translation) attempts to render the text literally, or “word for word” (the latter expression being itself a word-for-word rendering of the classical Latin verbum pro verbo)—if necessary, at the expense of features natural to the target language.

Sometimes you don’t know your source text language in advance. For example, user generated content might not contain a language code. Translation API can automatically identify languages with high accuracy.

Verb 1. translate – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

“在亚马逊的家中工作 很容易开始一个在线业务”

The first great English translation was the Wycliffe Bible (c. 1382), which showed the weaknesses of an underdeveloped English prose. Only at the end of the 15th century did the great age of English prose translation begin with Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur—an adaptation of Arthurian romances so free that it can, in fact, hardly be called a true translation. The first great Tudor translations are, accordingly, the Tyndale New Testament (1525), which influenced the Authorized Version (1611), and Lord Berners’ version of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles (1523–25).[77]

Kaiser, Walter, “A Hero of Translation” (a review of Jean Findlay, Chasing Lost Time: The Life of C.K. Scott Moncrieff: Soldier, Spy, and Translator, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 351 pp., $30.00), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), pp. 54–56.

Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation. But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable.[35] Back-translation must in general be less accurate than back-calculation because linguistic symbols (words) are often ambiguous, whereas mathematical symbols are intentionally unequivocal.

Such modern rendering is applied either to literature from classical languages such as Latin or Greek, notably to the Bible (see “Modern English Bible translations”), or to literature from an earlier stage of the same language, as with the works of William Shakespeare (which are largely understandable by a modern audience, though with some difficulty) or with Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (which is not generally understandable by modern readers).

Our French translation experts work with clients from all various sectors such as Manufacturing, IT, Government, Public Sector and Financial. All of our French translators are professionally qualified, native speakers.

Conrad thought C.K. Scott Moncrieff’s English translation of Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time—or, in Scott Moncrieff’s rendering, Remembrance of Things Past) to be preferable to the French original.[50][51]

Will I ever meet her? I don’t know. I’ve sort of lost interest in that! I guess I have such a strong impression of her from having read her books so many times. I have a close relationship with her, even though I actually have no relationship with her. I’ve just translated Frantumaglia, a collection of her letters, interviews, and more personal essays. It gives a strong sense of her as someone very intelligent, who thinks about things in her own way, who has read a lot, and who is able to use that in a way that isn’t obtrusive. She is very analytical, and critical, knows her own mind, doesn’t want to waste time. If I got an email from her asking to meet up? Yes, it would send me into a bit of a spin. I’d have to practise my Italian for one thing. RC

^ French philosopher and writer Gilles Ménage (1613-92) commented on translations by humanist Perrot Nicolas d’Ablancourt (1606-64): “Elles me rappellent une femme que j’ai beaucoup aimé à Tours, et qui était belle mais infidèle.” (“They remind me of a woman whom I greatly loved in Tours, who was beautiful but unfaithful.”) Quoted in Amparo Hurtado Albir, La notion de fidélité en traduction, (The Idea of Fidelity in Translation), Paris, Didier Érudition, 1990, p. 231.

[T]ranslation… is in fact an art both estimable and very difficult, and therefore is not the labor and portion of common minds; [it] should be [practiced] by those who are themselves capable of being actors, when they see greater use in translating the works of others than in their own works, and hold higher than their own glory the service that they render their country.[18]

A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences, but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei, “comes close to being a lifetime job.”[45]

Our translation team is comprised of in-house and freelance linguists, translators, proofreaders, translation quality assurance managers, and web programmers with a solid professional background in language translation and interpreting. We only use native translators to ensure accurate localization, and each translator that works for us undergoes a strict screening process in order to keep our standards of quality high. Our translators focus in the fields of medical, technology, and patent translations to ensure that even specialized documents retain the proper professional language and tone.

Pre-test respondents should include individuals representative of those who will be administered the questionnaire. For this study, dependent opioid users should be used to test the translated instruments, although such users could be drawn from sources other than those used to recruit study participants – preferably persons who would not otherwise be eligible for the main study.

Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel (“present”, “current”), the Polish aktualny (“present”, “current,” “topical”, “timely”, “feasible”),[14] the Swedish aktuell (“topical”, “presently of importance”), the Russian актуальный (“urgent”, “topical”) or the Dutch actueel (“current”).

With over 15 years of experience and consistent dedication to our customers, Translation Services USA has become one of the most innovative and reliable translation companies in the industry. We have built our translation agency on the founding principles of quality, integrity, innovation and customer satisfaction, and we continue to live up to those principles today.

Deborah Smith is translator of The Vegetarian by the Korean writer Han Kang; she and Kang are the co-winners of the Man Booker International prize 2016. She is also the translator of Kang’s more recent novel, Human Acts, and of another Korean writer, Bae Suah. She lives in London, where she has recently set up a non-profit publisher, Tilted Axis Press; its first book, Panty by Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay, translated from the Bengali by Arunava Sinha, is out now.

With the Internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page-translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author’s intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.

Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms, and vocabulary.

I often think of translation as an aural/oral practice. You have to be able to hear the language of the original. You have to be able to hear the tonalities, what the language indicates about the intelligence or class of the speaker. You have to be able to hear that, in my case in Spanish. And then you have to be able to speak it in English. You know, some idiot asked Gregory Rabassa, García Márquez’s first translator of One Hundred Years of Solitude, if he knew enough Spanish to do it. And Gregory said: “You asked me the wrong question. The real question is, do I know enough English?” Ursula Kenny

One of the first recorded instances of translation in the West was the rendering of the Old Testament into Greek in the 3rd century BCE. The translation is known as the “Septuagint”, a name that refers to the supposedly seventy translators (seventy-two, in some versions) who were commissioned to translate the Bible at Alexandria, Egypt. Acording to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy versions proved identical. The Septuagint became the source text for later translations into many languages, including Latin, Coptic, Armenian and Georgian.

Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them. The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music. In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know (or do not know well), and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing.

The book I am proudest of is a book of poetry called The Solitudes by a 17th-century poet, whose last name is Góngora, and it is the most difficult poetry that I have ever run across in any language. Very complex structure. And it’s absolutely beautiful, gorgeous poetry. And I thought, oh my God, if I can do this, I can leap tall buildings in a single bound – there’s nothing I can’t do.

Sworn translation, also called “certified translation,” aims at legal equivalence between two documents written in different languages. It is performed by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. Some countries recognize declared competence. Others require the translator to be an official state appointee. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, translators must be accredited by certain translation institutes or associations in order to be able to carry out certified translations.

Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria (Syriac language), Anatolia, and Israel (Hebrew language) go back several millennia. There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.[19]

Then a friend who was editing a magazine asked me to translate a piece by an Argentine writer named Macedonio Fernández, and I said “Ronald I’m not a translator, I’m a critic”, and he said: “Edie, call yourself whatever you want, just do the damn piece.” And so I did the piece. Macedonio was the most eccentric man and writer one can possibly imagine. I translated this piece called “The surgery of psychic extirpation”. And I mean it was wonderful. This was a procedure whereby you could have certain portions of your memory excised. It’s right out of a TV science fiction. And I thought to sit at home and translate it was more fun than playing with monkeys. I didn’t have to get dressed to go to work. I could smoke all I wanted. And I thought, this is perfect, this is a perfect way for me to work. And so I began to do more and more.

Edith Grossman is best known for her translations of works by Mario Vargas Llosa, Alvaro Mutis, Miguel de Cervantes and Gabriel García Márquez (who once commented that he preferred his work in translation). Harold Bloom commended her 2003 translation of Don Quixote for the “extraordinarily high quality of her prose”. She received the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation in 2006 and the Queen Sofía Spanish Institute Translation Prize for her 2008 translation of Antonio Muñoz Molina’s A Manuscript of Ashes. She lives in New York City.

You and your colleagues are experts in your industry, but are you experts in multilingual translation? In just minutes we can help you uncover risks you may be running with your current translation process.

In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language… was constantly renewing itself to fit modern ways of living. Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: the word for airplane, for example, has the same root as the word for bird.[25]

A global leader in industrial cutting technologies has sold its products worldwide for over 50 years and must communicate with its broad customer base with laser precision in more than 93 countries. Read On

When I was translating Our Lady of the Nile there were many unfamiliar terms I needed to find out about, for example, “un wax africain”. Walking through the alleys of Brixton market, I stepped into a fabric shop, where I discovered what the term means: the process of tie-dyeing cloth with wax, cloth that is then used to fashion women’s dresses and men’s robes. As I was reading Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s fiction at the time, I realised that the best translation would be “wrapper”.

Best known for translating the works of Rwandan novelist Scholastique Mukasonga, Mauthner worked as a sociology lecturer before becoming a translator. She gained a Hawthornden fellowship in 2013 to translate Mukasonga’s collection L’Iguifou. In 2014 she won the French Voices Award for her translation of the author’s first novel, Our Lady of the Nile. She also performs as part of the London writers’ collective Malika’s Poetry Kitchen.

I studied German at university, worked in Austria and Germany, moved to Denmark, then came back to England and married a Spaniard, which meant learning Spanish. And I started reading more in Norwegian. But you’ve only got one head and you can’t concentrate on everything, so while one language flourishes another atrophies. You just have to accept that nothing’s perfect. When I’m translating, it’s better to be in the UK, because you’ve got English all around you, and people may say things, and you think, yeah, that’s the one.

The necessity of making choices, and therefore of interpretation, in translating[52] (and in other fields of human endeavor) stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe. Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that “virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous, often in multiple ways. Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice.”[53] An example of linguistic ambiguity is the “pronoun disambiguation problem” (“PDP”): a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence—such as “he”, “she” or “it”—refers.[54] Such disambiguation is not infallible by a human, either.

“在家工作的职业 在线商业实例”

Non-scholarly literature, however, continued to rely on adaptation. France’s Pléiade, England’s Tudor poets, and the Elizabethan translators adapted themes by Horace, Ovid, Petrarch and modern Latin writers, forming a new poetic style on those models. The English poets and translators sought to supply a new public, created by the rise of a middle class and the development of printing, with works such as the original authors would have written, had they been writing in England in that day.[77]

6. (Biochemistry) (tr; usually passive) biochem to transform the molecular structure of (messenger RNA) into a polypeptide chain by means of the information stored in the genetic code. See also transcribe7

In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to large-scale ongoing translation efforts spanning well over a thousand years. The Tangut Empire was especially efficient in such efforts; exploiting the then newly invented block printing, and with the full support of the government (contemporary sources describe the Emperor and his mother personally contributing to the translation effort, alongside sages of various nationalities), the Tanguts took mere decades to translate volumes that had taken the Chinese centuries to render.[citation needed]

Weinberger […] pushes this insight further when he writes that “every reading of every poem, regardless of language, is an act of translation: translation into the reader’s intellectual and emotional life.” Then he goes still further: because a reader’s mental life shifts over time, there is a sense in which “the same poem be read twice.”[22]

In recent decades, prominent advocates of such “non-transparent” translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman, who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,[31] and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti, who has called on translators to apply “foreignizing” rather than domesticating translation strategies.[32]

Vladimir Nabokov, another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson’s. He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his 1964 English translation of Alexander Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin in prose.

Modern translation often involves literary scholarship and textual revision, as there is frequently not one single canonical text. This is particularly noteworthy in the case of the Bible and Shakespeare, where modern scholarship can result in substantive textual changes.

Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations.

The first great English translation was the Wycliffe Bible (c. 1382), which showed the weaknesses of an underdeveloped English prose. Only at the end of the 15th century did the great age of English prose translation begin with Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur—an adaptation of Arthurian romances so free that it can, in fact, hardly be called a true translation. The first great Tudor translations are, accordingly, the Tyndale New Testament (1525), which influenced the Authorized Version (1611), and Lord Berners’ version of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles (1523–25).[77]

Which brings me back to where I started. Last year, in another sign of how things are changing, Waterstones launched its monthly Rediscovered Classics promotion with Sagan’s Bonjour Tristesse. I was happy about this, but disappointed, to put it mildly, to find that it was the Penguin Modern Classics edition that it had piled up in-store, awaiting new readers. So what I want to say now is this: if you tried it then and hated it, please, have another go, only this time entrust yourself to Irene Ash’s gorgeous 1955 translation. The story of a teenager called Cecile who discovers, during a golden Riviera holiday, that her beloved papa is to remarry, I am willing to bet it will cast a spell on you, whether you are poolside, or stuck at home in Britain, watching the rain.

The question of fidelity vs. transparency has also been formulated in terms of, respectively, “formal equivalence” and “dynamic [or functional] equivalence”. The latter expressions are associated with the translator Eugene Nida and were originally coined to describe ways of translating the Bible, but the two approaches are applicable to any translation.

“在津巴布韦的商业新闻 _2018年在互联网上赚钱”

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.[1] The English language draws a terminological distinction (not all languages do) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community.

Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government.

In the second half of the 17th century, the poet John Dryden sought to make Virgil speak “in words such as he would probably have written if he were living and an Englishman”. Dryden, however, discerned no need to emulate the Roman poet’s subtlety and concision. Similarly, Homer suffered from Alexander Pope’s endeavor to reduce the Greek poet’s “wild paradise” to order.[78]

Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms, and vocabulary.

Christopher de Bellaigue, “Dreams of Islamic Liberalism” (review of Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950, University of Chicago Press, 439 pp., $45.00), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), pp. 77–78.

(fig) → übertragbar sein; the novel didn’t translate easily into screen terms → es war nicht einfach, aus dem Roman einen Film zu machen; how does that translate into cash? → was kommt geldmäßig dabei heraus?

Last week, I mentioned this experience to Ann Goldstein, the acclaimed translator of the Italian novelist Elena Ferrante. She laughed. “I know what you mean,” she said, down the line from New York. “My feeling about Proust is that he’s Scott-Moncrieff [C K Scott-Moncrieff, who published his English translation of A La recherche du temps perdu as Remembrance of Things Past in the 1920s]. I haven’t read the newer translations – but I don’t want to. I’m very attached to his, even though people always say ‘he did this’ or ‘he did that’.” If Goldstein is aware that for many people she will always, now, be the one and only translator of My Brilliant Friend and the other novels that make up Ferrante’s best-selling Neapolitan quartet, she gave no sign.

I didn’t learn Italian until I was in my 30s, when I began taking weekly lessons with some of my colleagues in the office. The inspiration for it was that I wanted to read The Divine Comedy in Italian, and I dragged everybody with me. Then about five years later, in 1992, the then editor of the New Yorker, Bob Gottlieb, received a manuscript in Italian. It was by Aldo Buzzi, sent to him by the cartoonist Saul Steinberg, a friend of Buzzi’s. Bob wanted to write a note to Saul, so he ask me to read it so he knew what to say. I read it, and I liked it, so I decided to try translating it – and Bob published it. A year after that, someone asked me to translate my first book. It does feel strange to be a well known translator now, it’s totally unexpected. The idea that any translator would be at all well known strikes me as amazing.

I often think of translation as an aural/oral practice. You have to be able to hear the language of the original. You have to be able to hear the tonalities, what the language indicates about the intelligence or class of the speaker. You have to be able to hear that, in my case in Spanish. And then you have to be able to speak it in English. You know, some idiot asked Gregory Rabassa, García Márquez’s first translator of One Hundred Years of Solitude, if he knew enough Spanish to do it. And Gregory said: “You asked me the wrong question. The real question is, do I know enough English?” Ursula Kenny

Balcerzan, Edward, ed. (1977). Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440-1974: Antologia [Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440-1974: an Anthology] (in Polish). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. OCLC 4365103.

Current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of “fidelity” and “transparency”. This has not always been the case, however; there have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation.

(fig) → übertragen; to translate feelings into action → Gefühle in die Tat umsetzen; to translate a novel into a film → aus einem Roman einen Film machen; could you translate that into cash terms? → lässt sich das geldmäßig ausdrücken?

While not instantaneous like its machine counterparts such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish, web-based human translation has been gaining popularity by providing relatively fast, accurate translation for business communications, legal documents, medical records, and software localization.[68] Web-based human translation also appeals to private website users and bloggers.[69]

I’ve only worked with two writers so far. Han Kang has good English, so she reads my translations, then talks to me about them. She’s not one of those nightmare authors some translators talk about. She has always been very generous in the way she collaborates. She thinks translation is artistic and creative in its own right, and that they’re “our” books. Bae Suah doesn’t read or speak English but is a translator herself, from German to Korean, and so also has a strong idea of translation as creative writing. She thinks I’m the best judge of how to make a book live in my language.

The periods preceding and contemporary with the Protestant Reformation saw translations of the Bible into vernacular (local) European languages—a development that contributed to Western Christianity’s split into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism due to disparities between Catholic and Protestant versions of crucial words and passages (though the Protestant movement was largely based on other things, such as a perceived need to reform the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate corruption). Lasting effects on the religions, cultures, and languages of their respective countries were exerted by such Bible translations as Martin Luther’s into German, Jakub Wujek’s into Polish, and William Tyndale’s and later the King James Bible’s translators’ into English.

In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in 1871 by Benjamin Jowett, who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language. Jowett’s example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion.[78]

^ Malise Ruthven, “The Islamic Road to the Modern World” (review of Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Struggle between Faith and Reason, 1798 to Modern Times, Liveright; and Wael Abu-‘Uksa, Freedom in the Arab World: Concepts and Ideologies in Arabic Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), p. 24.

George Szirtes is a poet and translator. Born in Budapest in 1948, he came to England as a refugee aged eight and learned Hungarian again as an adult. He has translated many Hungarian writers including Imre Madách, Sándor Márai and László Krasznahorkai (winner of the 2015 Man Booker International). He won the Dery prize for his translation of Madách’s The Tragedy of Man and the European Poetry Translation prize for Rakovsky’s New Life.

Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Belarusian, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Cebuano, Chichewa, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Icelandic, Igbo, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Khmer, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kyrgyz, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Macedonian, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Maori, Marathi, Mongolian, Myanmar (Burmese), Nepali, Norwegian, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Scots Gaelic, Serbian, Sesotho, Shona, Sindhi, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Sundanese, Swahili, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Xhosa, Yiddish, Yoruba, Zulu

I didn’t meet the author but we corresponded by email after I sent her queries. I am fortunate because so many experienced and established translators share their advice with incredible generosity. It is a vibrant, supportive community with many workshops, summer schools and conferences where newcomers can learn from professionals. As a reader, I’m immensely grateful to translators who re-create the worlds of Jacek Hugo-Bader, Erri de Luca and Joseph Roth, such as Antonia Lloyd-Jones from Polish, Danièle Valin from Italian and Stéphane Pesnel from German.

I don’t want to set myself up as some colonial pioneer. There are other translators who’ve been working for many years on Korean literature, and just because they haven’t won a big prize, that doesn’t mean that wasn’t also important work. But there is enough to go round! Korean literature is incredibly strong. It has dynamism and diversity. We’re in the middle of a big change: books like The Vegetarian, popular and critically acclaimed, have made readers, publishers and booksellers much more interested in translation generally – and because only a small percentage of books are published in translation, it’s as if they all come with a special stamp. Only the best of the best gets through. Interview by Rachel Cooke

Our translation team is comprised of in-house and freelance linguists, translators, proofreaders, translation quality assurance managers, and web programmers with a solid professional background in language translation and interpreting. We only use native translators to ensure accurate localization, and each translator that works for us undergoes a strict screening process in order to keep our standards of quality high. Our translators focus in the fields of medical, technology, and patent translations to ensure that even specialized documents retain the proper professional language and tone.

Douglas Hofstadter, in his 1997 book, Le Ton beau de Marot, argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure (meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc.).[80]

Significant finesse and know­-how are required to capture subtle nuances across languages and cultures, while also remaining true to a brand’s voice. That was precisely the challenge a leading cruise line posed us in their quest to provide guests with culinary adventures involving fresh creative menus for each of their destinations. Read On

After World War I, when Britain and France divided up the Middle East’s countries, apart from Turkey, between them, pursuant to the Sykes-Picot agreement—in violation of solemn wartime promises of postwar Arab autonomy—there came an immediate reaction: the Muslim Brotherhood emerged in Egypt, the House of Saud took over the Hijaz, and regimes led by army officers came to power in Iran and Turkey. “[B]oth illiberal currents of the modern Middle East,” writes de Bellaigue, “Islamism and militarism, received a major impetus from Western empire-builders.” As often happens in countries undergoing social crisis, the aspirations of the Muslim world’s translators and modernizers, such as Muhammad Abduh, largely had to yield to retrograde currents.[28]

^ Cited by Kasparek, “The Translator’s Endless Toil”, p. 87, from Ignacy Krasicki, “O tłumaczeniu ksiąg” (“On Translating Books”), in Dzieła wierszem i prozą (Works in Verse and Prose), 1803, reprinted in Edward Balcerzan, ed., Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), p. 79.

Many non-transparent-translation theories draw on concepts from German Romanticism, the most obvious influence being the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher. In his seminal lecture “On the Different Methods of Translation” (1813) he distinguished between translation methods that move “the writer toward [the reader]”, i.e., transparency, and those that move the “reader toward [the author]”, i.e., an extreme fidelity to the foreignness of the source text. Schleiermacher favored the latter approach; he was motivated, however, not so much by a desire to embrace the foreign, as by a nationalist desire to oppose France’s cultural domination and to promote German literature.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

Last year, I decided to treat myself to a new copy of Bonjour Tristesse by Françoise Sagan, a novel I have loved ever since I first read it as a teenager, and whose dreamy opening line in its original translation from the French by Irene Ash – “A strange melancholy pervades me to which I hesitate to give the grave and beautiful name of sadness” – I know by heart. But which one to get? In the end, I decided to go for something entirely new and ritzy, which is how I came to buy the Penguin Modern Classics edition, translated by Heather Lloyd.

Link, Perry, “A Magician of Chinese Poetry” (review of Eliot Weinberger, with an afterword by Octavio Paz, 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei (with More Ways), New Directions, 88 pp., $10.95 [paper]; and Eliot Weinberger, The Ghosts of Birds, New Directions, 211 pp., $16.95 [paper]), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), pp. 49–50.

“赚钱paypal _网上商务头号”

Non-scholarly literature, however, continued to rely on adaptation. France’s Pléiade, England’s Tudor poets, and the Elizabethan translators adapted themes by Horace, Ovid, Petrarch and modern Latin writers, forming a new poetic style on those models. The English poets and translators sought to supply a new public, created by the rise of a middle class and the development of printing, with works such as the original authors would have written, had they been writing in England in that day.[77]

Finding the right voice in Jo Nesbø’s case was about visualising Harry [Hole], the central character, thinking about the kind of person he was. For Knausgaard, in the first person, it was more difficult. It was trying to get inside Karl Ove, meeting him, finding who the person was I was describing. All the characters are, in a sense – I know this can be argued about – real. Karl Ove exists, his wife, friends, so you don’t want to get it too wrong.

I really like this app, but there are many bugs and difficulty when using it. For example, when using the speech function it constantly stops working, saying there is a connection error where there isn’t any. Or if my phone tilts a little bit on its side, the audio will stop and I have to start it all over again. This brings me to my next point: editing text. When you try to edit the text youre translating, its difficult to click it to be able to edit it or even find the spot you want to edit since the space is so small and cluttered. A function that will be really helpful is a pause/play button when youre having the text be read allowed and when the text is being read allowed, it doesnt stop if the device tilts to one side.

In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in 1871 by Benjamin Jowett, who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language. Jowett’s example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion.[78]

Interpreting, or “interpretation,” is the facilitation of oral or sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two, or among three or more, speakers who are not speaking, or signing, the same language.

Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers (although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved). Any translation (except machine translation, a different case) must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.

Where I have taken away some of [the original authors’] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[30]

When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language. Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are “untranslatable” among the modern European languages.[9][13]

Translation matters. It always has, of course – and should you be interested in the many ways it can affect the reader’s response to a book, I recommend both Tim Parks’s essay collection Where I’m Reading From, in which he asks interesting questions about the global market for fiction, and Julian Barnes’s brilliant and questing 2010 essay, Translating Madame Bovary. But perhaps right now translation is more important than ever – for suddenly, foreign literature seems finally to be finding its place in Britain, an island where it has previously struggled to attract substantial numbers of readers. How did this happen? It’s hard to say, but perhaps it began, thinking back, with the Scandinavian crime sagas — by Stieg Larsson, Henning Mankell, Jo Nesbø et al – that we all began gobbling up in increasingly vast quantities around the turn of the century. Then there was Karl Ove Knausgaard’s confessional series of novels, My Struggle, translated from the Norwegian by Don Bartlett, and a strange new addiction for many (the first volume came out in 2009). Finally, and most gloriously, there was Elena Ferrante. This time last year, Ferrante was everywhere. Every single book-loving friend of mine had either read her, or was just about to.

Weinberger […] pushes this insight further when he writes that “every reading of every poem, regardless of language, is an act of translation: translation into the reader’s intellectual and emotional life.” Then he goes still further: because a reader’s mental life shifts over time, there is a sense in which “the same poem cannot be read twice.”[22]

Chinese verbs are tense-less: there are several ways to specify when something happened or will happen, but verb tense is not one of them. For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity. According to Link, Weinberger’s insight about subjectlessness—that it produces an effect “both universal and immediate”—applies to timelessness as well.[22]

The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: an unidiomatic translation “sounds wrong”; and, in the extreme case of word-for-word translations generated by many machine-translation systems, often results in patent nonsense.

Last week, I mentioned this experience to Ann Goldstein, the acclaimed translator of the Italian novelist Elena Ferrante. She laughed. “I know what you mean,” she said, down the line from New York. “My feeling about Proust is that he’s Scott-Moncrieff [C K Scott-Moncrieff, who published his English translation of A La recherche du temps perdu as Remembrance of Things Past in the 1920s]. I haven’t read the newer translations – but I don’t want to. I’m very attached to his, even though people always say ‘he did this’ or ‘he did that’.” If Goldstein is aware that for many people she will always, now, be the one and only translator of My Brilliant Friend and the other novels that make up Ferrante’s best-selling Neapolitan quartet, she gave no sign.

Claude Piron writes that machine translation, at its best, automates the easier part of a translator’s job; the harder and more time-consuming part usually involves doing extensive research to resolve ambiguities in the source text, which the grammatical and lexical exigencies of the target language require to be resolved.[73] Such research is a necessary prelude to the pre-editing necessary in order to provide input for machine-translation software, such that the output will not be meaningless.[70]

Request : I’d like to see external app usefulness – let it translate stuff that I highlight in other apps such as email or text messages, without need to copy, change apps, and paste for my translation.

Douglas Hofstadter, in his 1997 book, Le Ton beau de Marot, argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure (meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc.).[80]

Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation, however, ignores the fact that communication in human language is context-embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error; therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human.[72]

When I was translating Our Lady of the Nile there were many unfamiliar terms I needed to find out about, for example, “un wax africain”. Walking through the alleys of Brixton market, I stepped into a fabric shop, where I discovered what the term means: the process of tie-dyeing cloth with wax, cloth that is then used to fashion women’s dresses and men’s robes. As I was reading Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s fiction at the time, I realised that the best translation would be “wrapper”.

Our company’s core mission is very simple: “To convey the World’s information”. We all share a passion for languages and aim to use the latest innovations in technology to solve the most challenging problems pertaining to localization, internationalization and globalization of information. Our team is comprised by veterans of the localization industry. We bring our broad expertise and passion to each project.

Galassi, Jonathan (June 2000). “FEATURE: Como conversazione: on translation”. The Paris Review. Antonio Weiss. 42 (155): 255–312. Poets and critics Seamus Heaney, Charles Tomlinson, Tim Parks, and others discuss the theory and practice of translation.

We take what we do very seriously. For us, translation is not just about changing words from one language to another. It’s about conveying the true meaning of those words, in all its subtleties, so that the translation is inherently adapted to its target audience and localized for demographics, culture, and subject matter.

The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax, and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions. Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism, writes Christopher de Bellaigue, “with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today…. No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness. It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world.” One of the neologisms that, in a way, came to characterize the infusion of new ideas via translation was “darwiniya”, or “Darwinism”.[26]

My spoken Italian is not as good as my reading Italian, but I love the language; that’s why I learned it. It’s a beautiful language: musical, very expressive. It does lots of little things English doesn’t do, like you can add suffixes to words to give them all kinds of subtle nuances. The obvious one is “issimo”, but there are many others. I prefer to stay close to the text when I’m translating. Of course it should read well in English. But I’m not a novelist. I don’t feel like I’m rewriting, or creating something new. I don’t feel it’s my job to do that. For the third or fourth draft, I might work without the text. But in the end, I go back to it, to make sure I haven’t gotten too far away from it. I haven’t worked that closely with many writers because a lot of those I’ve translated are dead – and then there’s Ferrante, who’s an absent writer. I have communicated with her through her publishers. She doesn’t interfere at all; she said she trusted me, which seemed like a compliment.

Translators are an intense, highly focused bunch. I admire them enormously. No one will ever read you as closely as your translator does. In a language as comfy in its huge soft armchair as English the shock of a strange sensibility entering English can be a delight. The Man Booker International prize is a way of stirring us from our comfort. And after many years I am genuinely beginning to think that literature in translation is becoming less of a curiosity.

Meanwhile, in Renaissance Italy, a new period in the history of translation had opened in Florence with the arrival, at the court of Cosimo de’ Medici, of the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus Pletho shortly before the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). A Latin translation of Plato’s works was undertaken by Marsilio Ficino. This and Erasmus’ Latin edition of the New Testament led to a new attitude to translation. For the first time, readers demanded rigor of rendering, as philosophical and religious beliefs depended on the exact words of Plato, Aristotle and Jesus.[77]

Translation of sung texts is generally much more restrictive than translation of poetry, because in the former there is little or no freedom to choose between a versified translation and a translation that dispenses with verse structure. One might modify or omit rhyme in a singing translation, but the assignment of syllables to specific notes in the original musical setting places great challenges on the translator. There is the option in prose sung texts, less so in verse, of adding or deleting a syllable here and there by subdividing or combining notes, respectively, but even with prose the process is almost like strict verse translation because of the need to stick as closely as possible to the original prosody of the sung melodic line.

“免费在线商业新闻 +最新的在线业务”

Translation API supports more than 100 languages and thousands of language pairs. You can send in HTML and receive HTML with translated text back. You don’t need to extract your source text or reassemble the translated content.

Vladimir Nabokov, another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson’s. He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his 1964 English translation of Alexander Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin in prose.

Last year, I decided to treat myself to a new copy of Bonjour Tristesse by Françoise Sagan, a novel I have loved ever since I first read it as a teenager, and whose dreamy opening line in its original translation from the French by Irene Ash – “A strange melancholy pervades me to which I hesitate to give the grave and beautiful name of sadness” – I know by heart. But which one to get? In the end, I decided to go for something entirely new and ritzy, which is how I came to buy the Penguin Modern Classics edition, translated by Heather Lloyd.

Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria (Syriac language), Anatolia, and Israel (Hebrew language) go back several millennia. There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.[19]

An important role in history has been played by translation of religious texts. Such translations may be influenced by tension between the text and the religious values the translators wish to convey. For example, Buddhist monks who translated the Indian sutras into Chinese occasionally adjusted their translations to better reflect China’s distinct culture, emphasizing notions such as filial piety.

Machine translation (MT) is a process whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and, in principle, produces a target text without human intervention. In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing.[70]

“Dynamic equivalence” (or “functional equivalence”) conveys the essential thoughts expressed in a source text—if necessary, at the expense of literality, original sememe and word order, the source text’s active vs. passive voice, etc.

Where I have taken away some of [the original authors’] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[30]

A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such “spill-overs” have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.[2]

Marcus, Gary, “Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), pp. 58–63. Multiple tests of artificial-intelligence efficacy are needed because, “just as there is no single test of athletic prowess, there cannot be one ultimate test of intelligence.” One such test, a “Construction Challenge”, would test perception and physical action—”two important elements of intelligent behavior that were entirely absent from the original Turing test.” Another proposal has been to give machines the same standardized tests of science and other disciplines that schoolchildren take. A so far insuperable stumbling block to artificial intelligence is an incapacity for reliable disambiguation. “[V]irtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous, often in multiple ways.” A prominent example is known as the “pronoun disambiguation problem”: a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence—such as “he”, “she” or “it”—refers.

What is required? A lot of reading, and a lot of listening to the rich variety of Englishes spoken today. As a translator, my task is to hear a text with its flow, rhythm, syntax, register and diction, to hear it anew in my head. The work is to re-invent the text. I want the new reader to hear the text the way I hear it when I read it in French, with its texture and colour, like stepping into a painting, a land and soundscape.

Throughout the Middle Ages, Latin was the lingua franca of the western learned world. The 9th-century Alfred the Great, king of Wessex in England, was far ahead of his time in commissioning vernacular Anglo-Saxon translations of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. Meanwhile, the Christian Church frowned on even partial adaptations of St. Jerome’s Vulgate of c. 384 CE,[76] the standard Latin Bible.

I didn’t fall in love with Korean. I wanted to be a translator because I love English. I find some aspects of Korean very beautiful, but it doesn’t have the resonances that English has for me. It was that I fell in love with certain writers. It has peculiarities as a language. It’s a subject-object-verb language, so a lot of information is delayed until the end of a sentence: Korean writers will often use that to build tension. It’s also a language that marks formality, and uses honorifics; Korea is a traditional Confucian society, which means it’s an age-based hierarchy. But those things demand the least attention, in the sense that they’re always the same. What’s more difficult is its reliance on ambiguity and repetition. Repeating words in English doesn’t give you the same poetic effect as in Korean, and Korean similes are loose, in that you don’t specify the ways in which one thing is like another. That just doesn’t work for an English reader: they would think “that doesn’t sound right”. So I make them less loose, but hopefully in a way that isn’t boring.

alter, change, modify – cause to change; make different; cause a transformation; “The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city”; “The discussion has changed my thinking about the issue”

The Ancient Greek term for “translation”, μετάφρασις (metaphrasis, “a speaking across”), has supplied English with “metaphrase” (a “literal”, or “word-for-word”, translation)—as contrasted with “paraphrase” (“a saying in other words”, from παράφρασις, paraphrasis).[7] “Metaphrase” corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to “formal equivalence”; and “paraphrase”, to “dynamic equivalence”.[9]

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[78]

Deborah Smith is translator of The Vegetarian by the Korean writer Han Kang; she and Kang are the co-winners of the Man Booker International prize 2016. She is also the translator of Kang’s more recent novel, Human Acts, and of another Korean writer, Bae Suah. She lives in London, where she has recently set up a non-profit publisher, Tilted Axis Press; its first book, Panty by Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay, translated from the Bengali by Arunava Sinha, is out now.

A global leader in industrial cutting technologies has sold its products worldwide for over 50 years and must communicate with its broad customer base with laser precision in more than 93 countries. Read On

Weinberger […] pushes this insight further when he writes that “every reading of every poem, regardless of language, is an act of translation: translation into the reader’s intellectual and emotional life.” Then he goes still further: because a reader’s mental life shifts over time, there is a sense in which “the same poem cannot be read twice.”[22]

“更好的业务 _在线bu”

Here is how I translate: I read the whole book first, as well as other books by the author so that I have the sound and feel of their prose in my head. The challenge is to find a similar voice in English. Would Scholastique Mukasonga sound like Jamaica Kincaid, Toni Morrison or Bernardine Evaristo? Walking around Brixton was helpful. It was in Brixton library that I first stumbled on this Rwandan author’s short stories. In south London you can hear so many “Englishes”: African, African Caribbean and Latin American. Mukasonga writes in a classical, lyrical French. Think Chinua Achebe or Nadine Gordimer. I needed to find a warm, tender, lively and smooth neutral English. I knew I would keep all the Kinyarwanda words that describe plants, fabric, food and spiritual rituals.

Instructions should be given in the approach to translating, emphasizing conceptual rather than literal translations, as well as the need to use natural and acceptable language for the broadest audience. The following general guidelines should be considered in this process:

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘translate.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

It is also necessary to describe the samples used in this process (i.e. the composition of the expert panel and the pre-test respondent samples). For the latter, the number of individuals as well as their basic characteristics should be described, as appropriate.

Translation API can seamlessly scale with almost any volume. We provide a generous daily quota and allow you to set limits below that amount. If a higher quota is needed, you can simply request an increase.

Sworn translation, also called “certified translation,” aims at legal equivalence between two documents written in different languages. It is performed by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. Some countries recognize declared competence. Others require the translator to be an official state appointee. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, translators must be accredited by certain translation institutes or associations in order to be able to carry out certified translations.

John Dryden (1631–1700), the dominant English-language literary figure of his age, illustrates, in his use of back-translation, translators’ influence on the evolution of languages and literary styles. Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.[39][40] Dryden created the proscription against “preposition stranding” in 1672 when he objected to Ben Jonson’s 1611 phrase, “the bodies that those souls were frighted from”, though he did not provide the rationale for his preference.[41] Dryden often translated his writing into Latin, to check whether his writing was concise and elegant, Latin being considered an elegant and long-lived language with which to compare; then he back-translated his writing back to English according to Latin-grammar usage. As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions, subsequently adopted by other writers.[42][43]

Translating has served as a school of writing for many an author, much as the copying of masterworks of painting has schooled many a novice painter.[57] A translator who can competently render an author’s thoughts into the translator’s own language, should certainly be able to adequately render, in his own language, any thoughts of his own. Translating (like analytic philosophy) compels precise analysis of language elements and of their usage. In 1946 the poet Ezra Pound, then at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, in Washington, D.C., advised a visitor, the 18-year-old beginning poet W.S. Merwin: “The work of translation is the best teacher you’ll ever have.”[58] Merwin, translator-poet who took Pound’s advice to heart, writes of translation as an “impossible, unfinishable” art.[59]

^ “Ideal concepts” are useful as well in other fields, such as physics and chemistry, which include the concepts of perfectly solid bodies, perfectly rigid bodies, perfectly plastic bodies, perfectly black bodies, perfect crystals, perfect fluids, and perfect gases. Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection (first published in Polish in 1976 as O doskonałości); English translation by Christopher Kasparek subsequently serialized in 1979–1981 in Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, and reprinted in Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection, Warsaw University Press, 1992.

Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government.

Most of my translatees have been dead a long time. The dead don’t quarrel. The best of the living, such as László Krasznahorkai, “hear” the translation as well as the opinion of the editor and trust the translator, who by definition never can be perfect. He and I rarely speak while the translation is in process.

Similarly, supporters of Aramaic primacy—of the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language—seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much better sense when back-translated to Aramaic: that, for example, some incomprehensible references are in fact Aramaic puns that do not work in Greek.

The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf… [It] was the popular expression of a translation movement that had begun earlier in the century with military and medical manuals and highlights from the Enlightenment canon. (Montesquieu’s Considerations on the Romans and Fénelon’s Telemachus had been favorites.)[23]

With WordPress being a free and open platform, there are a lot of translation plugins options out there to suit the needs of almost anyone, from the small time blogger up through to the “big leagues.” Want to know the difference, and find out which one is best for you? Read on…

I started teaching myself Korean in 2010, just before I started an MA in Korean Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies [in London]. The choice of Korean was strangely random; looking back, it doesn’t make any sense. I had this idea that I wanted to be a translator. I loved reading and writing, and I’d always wanted to learn a language; I was 22, and could only speak English, which was a bit embarrassing. Korean was a language I knew few people study here, and I felt that made it interesting, and that it would give me a niche. I don’t know that it was difficult to learn; I haven’t anything to compare it with. But I only really learned to read Korean. I still find having a conversation in Korean difficult.

SDL FreeTranslation.com has everything you need for French translation. Our free translation website allows you to translate documents, text and web pages from English to French. For professional, human translations in French get an instant free quote from our expert translators.

Wow what can I say, Translation Cloud takes care of business! Thank you so much!! I had a deadline to get a birth certificate translated and certified for court. I never did this before but Elizabeth took care of me and gave me a beautiful translated and certified certificate. Thank you so much! This company is very professional and I’m a very happy customer.

Efforts to translate the Bible into English had their martyrs. William Tyndale (c. 1494–1536) was convicted of heresy at Antwerp, was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned.[91] Earlier, John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320s – 1384) had managed to die a natural death, but 30 years later the Council of Constance in 1415 declared him a heretic and decreed that his works and earthly remains should be burned; the order, confirmed by Pope Martin V, was carried out in 1428, and Wycliffe’s corpse was exhumed and burned and the ashes cast into the River Swift. Debate and religious schism over different translations of religious texts continue, as demonstrated by, for example, the King James Only movement.

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

I get on very well with Karl Ove. I originally sent him 50 or 60 pages of the first novel and asked if I’d got the tone and voice right. He wrote back and said, “Yes, that’s me.” After that, he said he didn’t want to be on my back. I’ve asked him questions about bits and pieces but he doesn’t really get involved. But he has looked at the books, and wherever he goes, of course, he has to read sections out, so it’s important that he can feel the same kind of rhythms as when he wrote them. Kathryn Bromwich

Adapted translation retains currency in some non-Western traditions. The Indian epic, the Ramayana, appears in many versions in the various Indian languages, and the stories are different in each. Similar examples are to be found in medieval Christian literature, which adjusted the text to local customs and mores.

The Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of “translation” from an alternative Latin word, traductio, itself derived from traducere (“to lead across” or “to bring across”, from trans, “across” + ducere, “to lead” or “to bring”).[7]

Pre-test respondents should be administered the instrument and be systematically debriefed. This debriefing should ask respondents what they thought the question was asking, whether they could repeat the question in their own words, what came to their mind when they heard a particular phrase or term. It should also ask them to explain how they choose their answer. These questions should be repeated for each item.

Machine translation (MT) is a process whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and, in principle, produces a target text without human intervention. In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing.[70]

A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings, depending on context. This is said to be a linguistic feature, particularly of all Semitic languages, that adds to the usual similar difficulties encountered in translating between any two languages.[93] There is always an element of human judgment—of interpretation—involved in understanding and translating a text. Muslims regard any translation of the Quran as but one possible interpretation of the Quranic (Classical) Arabic text, and not as a full equivalent of that divinely communicated original. Hence such a translation is often called an “interpretation” rather than a translation.[94]

Meanwhile, in Renaissance Italy, a new period in the history of translation had opened in Florence with the arrival, at the court of Cosimo de’ Medici, of the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus Pletho shortly before the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). A Latin translation of Plato’s works was undertaken by Marsilio Ficino. This and Erasmus’ Latin edition of the New Testament led to a new attitude to translation. For the first time, readers demanded rigor of rendering, as philosophical and religious beliefs depended on the exact words of Plato, Aristotle and Jesus.[77]

When I was translating Our Lady of the Nile there were many unfamiliar terms I needed to find out about, for example, “un wax africain”. Walking through the alleys of Brixton market, I stepped into a fabric shop, where I discovered what the term means: the process of tie-dyeing cloth with wax, cloth that then used to fashion women’s dresses and men’s robes. As I was reading Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s fiction at the time, I realised that the best translation would be “wrapper”.

French is spoken by over 175 million people world-wide. French is the official language, or one of the official languages, in 33 countries. French is the official language in France, Monaco, Congo, Cote d’Ivorie and Guinea to name a few. French is the second most taught language in the world (English is the first).

Our award-winning translation service have expanded to include transcription, voice-over recording, remote video interpreting, over the phone interpretatio in order to provide our customers with a convenient “one-stop” solution for all of their language needs. Just like our translation service, every transcriptionist, voice-over artist, and interpreter undergoes a strict screening process to ensure only the highest quality service is provided.

Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires. Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic. It later focused on translating classical Greek and Persian works, as well as some Chinese and Indian texts, into Arabic for scholarly study at major Islamic learning centers, such as the Al-Karaouine (Fes, Morocco), Al-Azhar (Cairo, Egypt), and the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad. In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.

“在加拿大的家中工作 -在线业务是如何工作的”

Wills, Garry, “A Wild and Indecent Book” (review of David Bentley Hart, The New Testament: A Translation, Yale University Press, 577 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 2 (8 February 2018), pp. 34-35. Discusses some pitfalls in interpreting and translating the New Testament

I didn’t learn Italian until I was in my 30s, when I began taking weekly lessons with some of my colleagues in the office. The inspiration for it was that I wanted to read The Divine Comedy in Italian, and I dragged everybody else with me. Then about five years later, in 1992, the then editor of the New Yorker, Bob Gottlieb, received a manuscript in Italian. It was by Aldo Buzzi, sent to him by the cartoonist Saul Steinberg, a friend of Buzzi’s. Bob wanted to write a note to Saul, so he ask me to read it so he knew what to say. I read it, and I liked it, so I decided to try translating it – and Bob published it. A year after that, someone asked me to translate my first book. It does feel strange to be a well known translator now, it’s totally unexpected. The idea that any translator would be at all well known strikes me as amazing.

My spoken Italian is not as good as my reading Italian, but I love the language; that’s why I learned it. It’s a beautiful language: musical, very expressive. It does lots of little things English doesn’t do, like you can add suffixes to words to give them all kinds of subtle nuances. The obvious one is “issimo”, but there are many others. I prefer to stay close to the text when I’m translating. Of course it should read well in English. But I’m not a novelist. I don’t feel like I’m rewriting, or creating something new. I don’t feel it’s my job to do that. For the third or fourth draft, I might work without the text. But in the end, I go back to it, to make sure I haven’t gotten too far away from it. I haven’t worked that closely with many writers because a lot of those I’ve translated are dead – and then there’s Ferrante, who’s an absent writer. I have communicated with her through her publishers. She doesn’t interfere at all; she said she trusted me, which seemed like a compliment.

Cloud Translation API provides a simple programmatic interface for translating an arbitrary string into any supported language using state-of-the-art Neural Machine Translation. Translation API is highly responsive, so websites and applications can integrate with Translation API for fast, dynamic translation of source text from the source language to a target language (e.g., French to English). Language detection is also available in cases where the source language is unknown. The underlying technology pushes the boundary of Machine Translation and is updated constantly to seamlessly improve translations and introduce new languages and language pairs.

Our company’s core mission is very simple: “To convey the World’s information”. We all share a passion for languages and aim to use the latest innovations in technology to solve the most challenging problems pertaining to localization, internationalization and globalization of information. Our team is comprised by veterans of the localization industry. We bring our broad expertise and passion to each project.

I didn’t meet the author but we corresponded by email after I sent her queries. I am fortunate because so many experienced and established translators share their advice with incredible generosity. It is a vibrant, supportive community with many workshops, summer schools and conferences where newcomers can learn from professionals. As a reader, I’m immensely grateful to translators who re-create the worlds of Jacek Hugo-Bader, Erri de Luca and Joseph Roth, such as Antonia Lloyd-Jones from Polish, Danièle Valin from Italian and Stéphane Pesnel from German.

Translators are an intense, highly focused bunch. I admire them enormously. No one will ever read you as closely as your translator does. In a language as comfy in its huge soft armchair as English the shock of a strange sensibility entering English can be a delight. The Man Booker International prize is a way of stirring us from our comfort. And after many years I am genuinely beginning to think that literature in translation is becoming less of a curiosity.

A notable piece of work translated into English is the Wen Xuan, an anthology representative of major works of Chinese literature. Translating this work requires a high knowledge of the genres presented in the book, such as poetic forms, various prose types including memorials, letters, proclamations, praise poems, edicts, and historical, philosophical and political disquisitions, threnodies and laments for the dead, and examination essays. Thus the literary translator must be familiar with the writings, lives, and thought of a large number of its 130 authors, making the Wen one of the most difficult literary works to translate.[89]

The first translation I did was in the early 70s. I’m 80 now, so I was 30. Thereabouts. I had learned Spanish and I wasn’t sure what I’d do. I thought maybe I’d be an interpreter or whatever. But then I was in graduate school and I thought, well, I’ll be a literary critic. I liked writing about books. I specialised in Spanish and Latin American literature.

Kasparek, Christopher (1983). “The translator’s endless toil (book reviews)”. The Polish Review. Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America. XXVIII (2): 83–87. JSTOR 25777966. Includes a discussion of European-language cognates of the term, “translation”.

In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in 1871 by Benjamin Jowett, who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language. Jowett’s example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion.[78]

Claude Piron writes that machine translation, at its best, automates the easier part of a translator’s job; the harder and more time-consuming part usually involves doing extensive research to resolve ambiguities in the source text, which the grammatical and lexical exigencies of the target language require to be resolved.[73] Such research is a necessary prelude to the pre-editing necessary in order to provide input for machine-translation software, such that the output will not be meaningless.[70]

Translators should always aim at the conceptual equivalent of a word or phrase, not a word-for-word translation, i.e. not a literal translation. They should consider the definition of the original term and attempt to translate it in the most relevant way.

In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, and hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa. The grammatical differences between “fixed-word-order” languages[11] (e.g. English, French, German) and “free-word-order” languages[12] (e.g., Greek, Latin, Polish, Russian) have been no impediment in this regard.[9] The particular syntax (sentence-structure) characteristics of a text’s source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language.

Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation, however, ignores the fact that communication in human language is context-embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error; therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human.[72]

Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable. The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension. Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei (with More Ways)], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle. Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness….