“商业新闻 +在线代码的业务应用”

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One day an agent I know called me and said “Would you be interested in translating Gabriel Garcia Marquez?”, and I said: “Are you kidding me?” It was to do his great book Love in the Time of Cholera. It took six or seven months to translate. I mean there’s no union representing us, so I tend to work seven days a week, and I put in as many hours as my body can tolerate. Nowadays it kind of becomes more a physical problem of how long I can sit at my desk.

(fig) → übertragbar sein; the novel didn’t translate easily into screen terms → es war nicht einfach, aus dem Roman einen Film zu machen; how does that translate into cash? → was kommt geldmäßig dabei heraus?

Fidelity (or “faithfulness”) and transparency, dual ideals in translation, are often (though not always) at odds. A 17th-century French critic coined the phrase “les belles infidèles” to suggest that translations, like women, can be either faithful or beautiful, but not both.[29]

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With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with reworking of the machine translation by a human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system.[71]

As in the initial translation, emphasis in the back-translation should be on conceptual and cultural equivalence and not linguistic equivalence. Discrepancies should be discussed with the editor-in-chief and further work (forward translations, discussion by the bilingual expert panel, etc.) should be iterated as many times as needed until a satisfactory version is reached.

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

I always read the book first. Though a translator friend told me she never reads the book first. And I thought, “Wow, that’s an approach.” You’re putting yourself completely in the position of the reader – every time you turn the page there’s a surprise. So I have tried that and I kind of like it, even though I have been very firm in print about the virtues of reading the book first. I don’t do much research or preparation. I’ve always been of the opinion that whatever I need to know, the writer will tell me.

I didn’t learn Italian until I was in my 30s, when I began taking weekly lessons with some of my colleagues in the office. The inspiration for it was that I wanted to read The Divine Comedy in Italian, and I dragged everybody else with me. Then about five years later, in 1992, the then editor of the New Yorker, Bob Gottlieb, received a manuscript in Italian. It was by Aldo Buzzi, sent to him by the cartoonist Saul Steinberg, a friend of Buzzi’s. Bob wanted to write a note to Saul, so he ask me to read it so he knew what to say. I read it, and I liked it, so I decided to try translating it – and Bob published it. A year after that, someone asked me to translate my first book. It does feel strange to be a well known translator now, it’s totally unexpected. The idea that any translator would be at all well known strikes me as amazing.

In translating this information to Professor Maxon, von Horn habitually made it appear that the girl was in the hands of Number Thirteen, or Bulan, as they had now come to call him owing to the natives’ constant use of that name in speaking of the strange, and formidable white giant who had invaded their land.

Here is how I translate: I read the whole book first, as well as other books by the author so that I have the sound and feel of their prose in my head. The challenge is to find a similar voice in English. Would Scholastique Mukasonga sound like Jamaica Kincaid, Toni Morrison or Bernardine Evaristo? Walking around Brixton was helpful. It was in Brixton library that I first stumbled on this Rwandan author’s short stories. In south London you can hear so many “Englishes”: African, African Caribbean and Latin American. Mukasonga writes in a classical, lyrical French. Think Chinua Achebe or Nadine Gordimer. I needed to find a warm, tender, lively and smooth neutral English. I knew I would keep all the Kinyarwanda words that describe plants, fabric, food and spiritual rituals.

Translating has served as a school of writing for many an author, much as the copying of masterworks of painting has schooled many a novice painter.[57] A translator who can competently render an author’s thoughts into the translator’s own language, should certainly be able to adequately render, in his own language, any thoughts of his own. Translating (like analytic philosophy) compels precise analysis of language elements and of their usage. In 1946 the Ezra Pound, then at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, in Washington, D.C., advised a visitor, the 18-year-old beginning poet W.S. Merwin: “The work of translation is the best teacher you’ll ever have.”[58] Merwin, translator-poet who took Pound’s advice to heart, writes of translation as an “impossible, unfinishable” art.[59]

In translating Chinese literature, translators struggle to find true fidelity in translating into the target language. In The Poem Behind the Poem, Barnstone argues that poetry “can’t be made to sing through a mathematics that doesn’t factor in the creativity of the translator”.[88]

Will I ever meet her? I don’t know. I’ve sort of lost interest in that! I guess I have such a strong impression of her from having read her books so many times. I have a close relationship with her, even though I actually have no relationship with her. I’ve just translated Frantumaglia, a collection of her letters, interviews, and more personal essays. It gives a strong sense of her as someone very intelligent, who thinks about things in her own way, who has read a lot, and who is able to use that in a way that isn’t obtrusive. She is very analytical, and critical, knows her own mind, doesn’t want to waste time. If I got an email from her asking to meet up? Yes, it would send me into a bit of a spin. I’d have to practise my Italian for one thing. RC

“收入在线 _商业新闻的世界”

When a historic document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text. An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki (1761–1815), who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in 1804 and 1813–14. Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation that was made by Edmund Chojecki in 1847 from a complete French copy, now lost. French-language versions of the complete Saragossa Manuscript have since been produced, based on extant French-language fragments and on French-language versions that have been back-translated from Chojecki’s Polish version.[38]

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The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Ange Mlinko, “Whole Earth Troubador” (review of The Essential W.S. Merlin, edited by Michael Wiegers, Copper Canyon, 338 pp., 2017), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 19 (7 December 2017), pp. 45–46.

In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge. Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them. Between 1880 and 1908… more than six hundred newspapers and periodicals were founded in Egypt alone.

The aim of this process is to achieve different language versions the English instrument that are conceptually equivalent in each of the target countries/cultures. That is, the instrument should be equally natural and acceptable and should practically perform in the same way. The focus is on cross-cultural and conceptual, rather than on linguistic/literal equivalence. A well-established method to achieve this goal is to use forward-translations and back-translations. This method has been refined in the course of several WHO studies to result in the following guidelines.

I have had to re-read translations that I’ve done because I’ve used them in classes I teach on contemporary Latin American literature. I always find pages and pages that I would do entirely differently. But you know, it was the best I could do at the time, and so I can’t regret it.

Berman, Antoine (1984). L’épreuve de l’étranger: culture et traduction dans l’Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hölderlin (in French). Paris: Gallimard, Essais. ISBN 9782070700769.

Find out why it’s important to speak your customers’ language, with an expert-level target audience briefing, identifiable actions to maximize efficiency and effectiveness, and a tailored recommendation for your global content strategy

Tatarkiewicz, Władysław (author); Kasparek, Christopher (Polish-to-English translator) (1980). A history of six ideas: an essay in aesthetics. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 8301008245.

The necessity of making choices, and therefore of interpretation, in translating[52] (and in other fields of human endeavor) stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe. Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that “virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous, often in multiple ways. Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice.”[53] An example of linguistic ambiguity is the “pronoun disambiguation problem” (“PDP”): a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence—such as “he”, “she” or “it”—refers.[54] Such disambiguation is not infallible by a human, either.

Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden (1631–1700), who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, “counterparts,” or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language:

Unedited machine translation is publicly available through tools on the Internet such as Google Translate, Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict. These produce rough translations that, under favorable circumstances, “give the gist” of the source text.

Verb 1. translate – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

Wilson, Emily, “A Doggish Translation” (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), pp. 34–36.

After our last post on translating the content on your WordPress site, you may be wondering if there’s also a way to translate the admin panel and other “back-end” features as well. As a matter of fact, there is, and in this guide we’ll show you a few ways to do it!

Other writers, among many who have made a name for themselves as literary translators, include Vasily Zhukovsky, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Vladimir Nabokov, Jorge Luis Borges, Robert Stiller and Haruki Murakami.

Transcription Transliteration Video relay service (VRS) Telephone interpreting Language barrier Fan translation Fansub Fandub Books and magazines on translation Bible translations by language Translated books Translators

With the Internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page-translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author’s intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.

I don’t want to set myself up as some colonial pioneer. There are other translators who’ve been working for many years on Korean literature, and just because they haven’t won a big prize, that doesn’t mean that wasn’t also important work. But there is enough to go round! Korean literature is incredibly strong. It has dynamism and diversity. We’re in the middle of a big change: books like The Vegetarian, popular and critically acclaimed, have made readers, publishers and booksellers much more interested in translation generally – and because only a small percentage of books are published in translation, it’s as if they all come with a special stamp. Only the best of the best gets through. Interview by Rachel Cooke

One famous mistranslation of a Biblical text is the rendering of the Hebrew word קֶרֶן (keren), which has several meanings, as “horn” in a context where it more plausibly means “beam of light”: as a result, for centuries artists, including sculptor Michelangelo, have rendered Moses the Lawgiver with horns growing from his forehead.

It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects; the reader or listener infers a subject. Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Most of the translators cited in Eliot Weinberger’s 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei supply a subject. Weinberger points out, however, that when an “I” as a subject is inserted, a “controlling individual mind of the poet” enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line. Without a subject, he writes, “the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader.” Another approach to the subjectlessness is to use the target language’s passive voice; but this again particularizes the experience too much.[22]

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[78]

^ A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. Some examples of this are described in the article, “Translating the 17th of May into English and other horror stories” [1], retrieved 2010-04-15. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss.

The translator’s role in relation to a text has been compared to that of an artist, e.g., a musician or actor, who interprets a work of art. Translation, like other human activities,[46] entails making choices, and choice implies interpretation.[14][47] The English-language novelist Joseph Conrad, whose writings Zdzisław Najder has described as verging on “auto-translation” from Conrad’s Polish and French linguistic personae,[48] advised his niece and Polish translator Aniela Zagórska:

The target language should aim for the most common audience. Translators should avoid addressing professional audiences such as those in medicine or any other professional group. They should consider the typical respondent for the instrument being translated and what the respondent will understand when s/he hears the question.

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A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings, depending on context. This is said to be a linguistic feature, particularly of all Semitic languages, that adds to the usual similar difficulties encountered in translating between any two languages.[93] There is always an element of human judgment—of interpretation—involved in understanding and translating a text. Muslims regard any translation of the Quran as but one possible interpretation of the Quranic (Classical) Arabic text, and not as a full equivalent of that divinely communicated original. Hence such a translation is often called an “interpretation” rather than a translation.[94]

A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such “spill-overs” have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.[2]

In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system. Notable is the Japanese kanbun, a system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers.

Interactive translations with pop-up windows are becoming more popular. These tools show one or more possible equivalents for each word or phrase. Human operators merely need to select the likeliest equivalent as the mouse glides over the foreign-language text. Possible equivalents can be grouped by pronunciation.

Tatarkiewicz, Władysław, O doskonałości (On Perfection), Warsaw, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1976; English translation by Christopher Kasparek subsequently serialized in Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. VI, no. 4 (autumn 1979)—vol. VIII, no 2 (spring 1981), and reprinted in Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection, Warsaw University Press, Center of Universalism, 1992, pp. 9–51 (the book is a collection of papers by and about Professor Tatarkiewicz).

“在家工作16年 工作在家工作”

Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria (Syriac language), Anatolia, and Israel (Hebrew language) go back several millennia. There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.[19]

Which brings me back to where I started. Last year, in another sign of how things are changing, Waterstones launched its monthly Rediscovered Classics promotion with Sagan’s Bonjour Tristesse. I was happy about this, but disappointed, to put it mildly, to find that it was the Penguin Modern Classics edition that it had piled up in-store, awaiting new readers. So what I want to say now is this: if you tried it then and hated it, please, have another go, only this time entrust yourself to Irene Ash’s gorgeous 1955 translation. The story of a teenager called Cecile who discovers, during a golden Riviera holiday, that her beloved papa is to remarry, I am willing to bet it will cast a spell on you, whether you are poolside, or stuck at home in Britain, watching the rain.

Interactive translations with pop-up windows are becoming more popular. These tools show one or more possible equivalents for each word or phrase. Human operators merely need to select the likeliest equivalent as the mouse glides over the foreign-language text. Possible equivalents can be grouped by pronunciation.

Our award-winning translation service have expanded to include transcription, voice-over recording, remote video interpreting, over the phone interpretatio in order to provide our customers with a convenient “one-stop” solution for all of their language needs. Just like our translation service, every transcriptionist, voice-over artist, and interpreter undergoes a strict screening process to ensure only the highest quality service is provided.

When translations are produced of material used in medical clinical trials, such as informed-consent forms, a back-translation is often required by the ethics committee or institutional review board.[36]

After our last post on translating the content on your WordPress site, you may be wondering if there’s also a way to translate the admin panel and other “back-end” features as well. As a matter of fact, there is, and in this guide we’ll show you a few ways to do it!

Categories: English terms derived from the PIE root *telh₂-English terms derived from Anglo-NormanEnglish terms derived from Old FrenchEnglish terms derived from LatinEnglish terms with audio linksEnglish 3-syllable wordsEnglish terms with IPA pronunciationEnglish lemmasEnglish nounsEnglish uncountable nounsEnglish countable nounsen:Translation studiesen:Physicsen:Mathematicsen:Geneticsen:Christianityen:MedicineFrench terms derived from LatinFrench lemmasFrench nounsFrench feminine nounsFrench countable nounsfr:Mathematicsfr:Physicsfr:ComputingSwedish terms derived from LatinSwedish lemmasSwedish nounssv:Mathematicssv:Physics

Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers (although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved). Any translation (except machine translation, a different case) must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.

(fig) → übertragen; to translate feelings into action → Gefühle in die Tat umsetzen; to translate a novel into a film → aus einem Roman einen Film machen; could you translate that into cash terms? → lässt sich das geldmäßig ausdrücken?

The translator’s role as a bridge for “carrying across” values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translator’s role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Cicero. Dryden observed that “Translation is a type of drawing after life…” Comparison of the translator with a musician or actor goes back at least to Samuel Johnson’s remark about Alexander Pope playing Homer on a flageolet, while Homer himself used a bassoon.[14]

In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to large-scale ongoing translation efforts spanning well over a thousand years. The Tangut Empire was especially efficient in such efforts; exploiting the then newly invented block printing, and with the full support of the government (contemporary sources describe the Emperor and his mother personally contributing to the translation effort, alongside sages of various nationalities), the Tanguts took mere decades to translate volumes that had taken the Chinese centuries to render.[citation needed]

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The question of fidelity vs. transparency has also been formulated in terms of, respectively, “formal equivalence” and “dynamic [or functional] equivalence”. The latter expressions are associated with the translator Eugene Nida and were originally coined to describe ways of translating the Bible, but the two approaches are applicable to any translation.

Among the idées reçues [received ideas] skewered by David Bellos is the old saw that “poetry is what gets lost in translation.” The saying is often attributed to Robert Frost, but as Bellos notes, the attribution is as dubious as the idea itself. A translation is an assemblage of words, and as such it can contain as much or as little poetry as any other such assemblage. The Japanese even have a word (chōyaku, roughly “hypertranslation”) to designate a version that deliberately improves on the original.[81]

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Efforts to translate the Bible into English had their martyrs. William (c. 1494–1536) was convicted of heresy at Antwerp, was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned.[91] Earlier, John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320s – 1384) had managed to die a natural death, but 30 years later the Council of Constance in 1415 declared him a heretic and decreed that his works and earthly remains should be burned; the order, confirmed by Pope Martin V, was carried out in 1428, and Wycliffe’s corpse was exhumed and burned and the ashes cast into the River Swift. Debate and religious schism over different translations of religious texts continue, as demonstrated by, for example, the King James Only movement.

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It is also necessary to describe the samples used in this process (i.e. the composition of the expert panel and the pre-test respondent samples). For the latter, the number of individuals as well as their basic characteristics should be described, as appropriate.

Modern translation meets with opposition from some traditionalists. In English, some readers prefer the Authorized King James Version of the Bible to modern translations, and Shakespeare in the original of c. 1600 to modern translations.

Last year, I decided to treat myself to a new copy of Bonjour Tristesse by Françoise Sagan, a novel I have loved ever since I first read it as a teenager, and whose dreamy opening line in its original translation from the French by Irene Ash – “A strange melancholy pervades me to which I hesitate to give the grave and beautiful name of sadness” – I know by heart. But which one to get? In the end, I decided to go for something entirely new and ritzy, which is how I came to buy the Penguin Modern Classics edition, translated by Heather Lloyd.

Will I ever meet her? I don’t know. I’ve sort of lost interest in that! I guess I have such a strong impression of her from having read her books so many times. I have a close relationship with her, even though I actually have no relationship with her. I’ve just translated Frantumaglia, a collection of her letters, interviews, and more personal essays. It gives a strong sense of her as someone very intelligent, who thinks about things in her own way, who has read a lot, and who is able to use that in a way that isn’t obtrusive. She is very analytical, and critical, knows her own mind, doesn’t want to waste time. If I got an email from her asking to meet up? Yes, it would send me into a bit of a spin. I’d have to practise my Italian for one thing. RC

“Dynamic equivalence” (or “functional equivalence”) conveys the essential thoughts expressed in a source text—if necessary, at the expense of literality, original sememe and word order, the source text’s active vs. passive voice, etc.

“There are some books whose success is very local,” says Adam Freudenheim, the publisher of Pushkin Press, and the man who introduced me to the Russian writer Teffi (and to Gundar-Goshen). “But the best fiction almost always travels well, in my view.” For him, as for other presses that specialise in translated work (Harvill Secker, Portobello, And Other Stories, MacLehose Press and others), the focus is simply on publishing a great book; the fact that it is translated is “not the decisive thing”. And this, in turn, is how he accounts for the increasing popularity of foreign fiction – a shift that he, like Ann Goldstein, believes is real enough to turn out to be permanent. There are, quite simply, a lot of great translated books out there now, their covers appetising, their introductions informative, their translations (mostly) works of art in their own right.

Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary, religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide “local color”.

Wilson, Emily, “A Doggish Translation” (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), pp. 34–36.

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Where I have taken away some of [the original authors’] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[30]

Book-title translations can be either descriptive or symbolic. Descriptive book titles, for example Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince), are meant to be informative, and can name the protagonist, and indicate the theme of the book. An example of a symbolic book title is Stieg Larsson’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, whose original Swedish title is Män som hatar kvinnor (Men Who Hate Women). Such symbolic book titles usually indicate the theme, issues, or atmosphere of the work.

Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called “computer-aided translation,” “machine-aided human translation” (MAHT) and “interactive translation,” is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.

While not instantaneous like its machine counterparts such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish, web-based human translation has been gaining popularity by providing relatively fast, accurate translation for business communications, legal documents, medical records, and software localization.[68] Web-based human translation also appeals to private website users and bloggers.[69]

Douglas Hofstadter, in his 1997 book, Le Ton beau de Marot, argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure (meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc.).[80]

I think I enjoy Don Quixote more than any other book. I just fell in love with that novel over and over again. At the beginning of the 00s, I was terrified and excited at the prospect of translating it. I mentioned I was doing it in a note to García Márquez; later, when I spoke to him on the telephone, his first words to me were: “So I hear you’re two-timing me with Cervantes.”

The final version of the instrument in the target language should be the result of all the iterations described above. It is important that a serial number (e.g. 1.0) be given to each version. Instructions for providing the electronic version of the final translated instrument to WHO will be provided.

“任何在线业务 +最新的商业和金融新闻”

Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called “computer-aided translation,” “machine-aided human translation” (MAHT) and “interactive translation,” is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The supports a human translator.

Tatarkiewicz, Władysław (author); Kasparek, Christopher (Polish-to-English translator) (1980). A history of six ideas: an essay in aesthetics. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 8301008245.

Computer-assisted translation can include standard dictionary and grammar software. The term, however, normally refers to a range of specialized programs available to the translator, including translation-memory, terminology-management, concordance, and alignment programs.

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Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them. The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music. In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know (or do not know well), and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing.

A major law firm faced a tough challenge as they prepared for complex litigation in a international fraud case requiring the translation of boxes and boxes of evidence from Spanish into English as part of the discovery process. Read On

In translating this information to Professor Maxon, von Horn habitually made it appear that the girl was in the hands of Number Thirteen, or Bulan, as they had now come to call him owing to the natives’ constant use of that name in speaking of the strange, and formidable white giant who had invaded their land.

Balcerzan, Edward, ed. (1977). Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440-1974: Antologia [Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440-1974: an Anthology] (in Polish). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. OCLC 4365103.

Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Belarusian, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Cebuano, Chichewa, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Icelandic, Igbo, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Khmer, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kyrgyz, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Macedonian, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Maori, Marathi, Mongolian, Myanmar (Burmese), Nepali, Norwegian, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Scots Gaelic, Serbian, Sesotho, Shona, Sindhi, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Sundanese, Swahili, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Xhosa, Yiddish, Yoruba, Zulu

One of the most influential liberal Islamic thinkers of the time was Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905), Egypt’s senior judicial authority—its chief mufti—at the turn of the 20th century and an admirer of Darwin who in 1903 visited Darwin’s exponent Herbert Spencer at his home in Brighton. Spencer’s view of society as an organism with its own laws of evolution paralleled Abduh’s ideas.[27]

Deborah Smith is translator of The Vegetarian by the Korean writer Han Kang; she and Kang are the co-winners of the Man Booker International prize 2016. She is also the translator of Kang’s more recent novel, Human Acts, and of another Korean writer, Bae Suah. She lives in London, where she has recently set up a non-profit publisher, Tilted Axis Press; its first book, Panty by Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay, translated from the Bengali by Arunava Sinha, is out now.

The final version of the instrument in the target language should be the result of all the iterations described above. It is important that a serial number (e.g. 1.0) be given to each version. Instructions for providing the electronic version of the final translated instrument to WHO will be provided.

Hays, Gregory, “Found in Translation” (review of Denis Feeney, Beyond Greek: The Beginnings of Latin Literature, Harvard University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), pp. 56, 58.

Request : I’d like to see external app usefulness – let it translate stuff that I highlight in other apps such as email or text messages, without the need to copy, change apps, and paste for my translation.

Most of my translatees have been dead a long time. The dead don’t quarrel. The best of the living, such as László Krasznahorkai, “hear” the translation as well as the opinion of the editor and trust the translator, who by definition never can be perfect. He and I rarely speak while the translation is in process.

Modern translation is applicable to any language with a long literary history. For example, in Japanese the 11th-century Tale of Genji is generally read in modern translation (see “Genji: modern readership”).

The target language should aim for the most common audience. Translators should avoid addressing professional audiences such as those in medicine or any other professional group. They should consider the typical respondent for the instrument being translated and what the respondent will understand when s/he hears the question.

When [words] appear… literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since… what is beautiful in one [language] is often barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author’s words: ’tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense.[7]

With the Internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page-translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author’s intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.

The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf… [It] was the popular expression of a translation movement that had begun earlier in the century with military and medical manuals and highlights from the Enlightenment canon. (Montesquieu’s Considerations on the Romans and Fénelon’s Telemachus had been favorites.)[23]

Galassi, Jonathan (June 2000). “FEATURE: Como conversazione: on translation”. The Paris Review. Antonio Weiss. 42 (155): 255–312. Poets and critics Seamus Heaney, Charles Tomlinson, Tim Parks, and others discuss the theory and practice of translation.

Here is how I translate: I read the whole book first, as well as other books by the author so that I have the sound and feel of their prose in my head. The challenge is to find a similar voice in English. Would Scholastique Mukasonga sound like Jamaica Kincaid, Toni Morrison or Bernardine Evaristo? Walking around Brixton was helpful. It was in Brixton library that I first stumbled on this Rwandan author’s short stories. In south London you can hear so many “Englishes”: African, African Caribbean and Latin American. Mukasonga writes in a classical, lyrical French. Think Chinua Achebe or Nadine Gordimer. I needed to find a warm, tender, lively and smooth neutral English. I knew I would keep all the Kinyarwanda words that describe plants, fabric, food and spiritual rituals.

A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity (faithfulness) is said to be “faithful”; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, “idiomatic”. Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive.

As a language evolves, texts in an earlier version of the language—original texts, or old translations—may become difficult for modern readers to understand. Such a text may therefore be translated into more modern language, producing a “modern translation” (e.g., a “modern English translation” or “modernized translation”).

In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language… was constantly renewing itself to fit modern ways of living. Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: the word for airplane, for example, has the same root as the word for bird.[25]

^ Gregory Hays, “Found in Translation” (review of Denis Feeney, Beyond Greek: The Beginnings of Latin Literature, Harvard University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), p. 58.

Verb 1. translate – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

“互联网商务视频 -今天的商业新闻头条”

A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing. But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest.[56]

There are times when you have to go to Norway to do research – when I started the Jo Nesbø novels, I spent ages walking the streets of Oslo, finding out where things were, where this cemetery was, where that murder was. I went to Oslo once because I’d been particularly stumped about the descriptions of a ski mast, which you don’t have in England, and I went up a hill in snow and fog, and I eventually got a picture of this mast so that I could be sure of the translation.Usually words can be translated, but it may be long-winded and not as snappy as the original. And it’s the culture – Norwegians don’t always behave the way we do. They’re forever “throwing their hands in the air” in these novels, and that’s not very English. There’s always a tension between being true to the original and being readable. Knausgaard has very long sentences only separated by commas, so what you want is to re-create that intensity rather than breaking it up with colons and semi-colons, although that would probably be more acceptable English style.

ascertain, determine, find out, find – establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study; “find the product of two numbers”; “The physicist who found the elusive particle won the Nobel Prize”

The book I am proudest of is a book of poetry called The Solitudes by a 17th-century poet, whose last name is Góngora, and it is the most difficult poetry that I have ever run across in any language. Very complex structure. And it’s absolutely beautiful, gorgeous poetry. And I thought, oh my God, if I can do this, I can leap tall buildings in a single bound – there’s nothing I can’t do.

George Szirtes is a poet and translator. Born in Budapest in 1948, he came to England as a refugee aged eight and learned Hungarian again as an adult. He has translated many Hungarian writers including Imre Madách, Sándor Márai and László Krasznahorkai (winner of the 2015 Man Booker International). He won the Dery prize for his translation of Madách’s The Tragedy of Man and the European Poetry Translation prize for Rakovsky’s New Life.

Vladimir Nabokov, another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson’s. He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his 1964 English translation of Alexander Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin in prose.

Ambiguity is a concern to both translators and, as the writings of poet and literary critic William Empson have demonstrated, to literary critics. Ambiguity may be desirable, indeed essential, in poetry and diplomacy; it can be more problematic in ordinary prose.[55]

The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax, and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions. Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism, writes Christopher de Bellaigue, “with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today…. No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness. It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world.” One of the neologisms that, in a way, came to characterize the infusion of new ideas via translation was “darwiniya”, or “Darwinism”.[26]

Deborah Smith is translator of The Vegetarian by the Korean writer Han Kang; she and Kang are the co-winners of the Man Booker International prize 2016. She is also the translator of Kang’s more recent novel, Human Acts, and of another Korean writer, Bae Suah. She lives in London, where she has recently set up a non-profit publisher, Tilted Axis Press; its first book, Panty by Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay, translated from the Bengali by Arunava Sinha, is out now.

^ J.M. Cohen observes (p.14): “Scientific translation is the aim of an age that would reduce all activities to techniques. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination.”

As in the initial translation, emphasis in the back-translation should be on conceptual and cultural equivalence and not linguistic equivalence. Discrepancies should be discussed with the editor-in-chief and further work (forward translations, discussion by the bilingual expert panel, etc.) should be iterated as many times as needed until a satisfactory version is reached.

John Dryden (1631–1700), the dominant English-language literary figure of his age, illustrates, in his use of back-translation, translators’ influence on the evolution of languages and literary styles. Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.[39][40] Dryden created the proscription against “preposition stranding” in 1672 when he objected to Ben Jonson’s 1611 phrase, “the bodies that those souls were frighted from”, though he did not provide the rationale for his preference.[41] Dryden often translated his writing into Latin, to check whether his writing was concise and elegant, Latin being considered an elegant and long-lived language with which to compare; then he back-translated his writing back to English according to Latin-grammar usage. As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions, subsequently adopted by other writers.[42][43]

Find out why it’s important to speak your customers’ language, with an expert-level target audience briefing, identifiable actions to maximize efficiency and effectiveness, and a tailored recommendation for your global content strategy

Rose, Marilyn Gaddis (guest editor) (January 1980). Translation: agent of communication: an international review of arts and ideas (volume 5, issue 1, special issue). Hamilton, New Zealand: Outrigger Publishers. OCLC 224073589.

Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations.

Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel (“present”, “current”), the Polish aktualny (“present”, “current,” “topical”, “timely”, “feasible”),[14] the Swedish aktuell (“topical”, “presently of importance”), the Russian актуальный (“urgent”, “topical”) or the Dutch actueel (“current”).

Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable. The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension. Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei (with More Ways)], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle. Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness….

You and your colleagues are experts in your industry, but are you experts in multilingual translation? In just five minutes we can help you uncover risks you may be running with your current translation process.

Sworn translation, also called “certified translation,” aims at legal equivalence between two documents written in different languages. It is by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. Some countries recognize declared competence. Others require the translator to be an official state appointee. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, translators must be accredited by certain translation institutes or associations in order to be able to carry out certified translations.

Fidelity (or “faithfulness”) and transparency, dual ideals in translation, are often (though not always) at odds. A 17th-century French critic coined the phrase “les belles infidèles” to suggest that translations, like women, can be either faithful or beautiful, but not both.[29]

After World War I, when Britain and France divided up the Middle East’s countries, apart from Turkey, between them, pursuant to the Sykes-Picot agreement—in violation of solemn wartime promises of postwar Arab autonomy—there came an immediate reaction: the Muslim Brotherhood emerged in Egypt, the House of Saud took over the Hijaz, and regimes led by army officers came to power in Iran and Turkey. “[B]oth illiberal currents of the modern Middle East,” writes de Bellaigue, “Islamism and militarism, received a major impetus from Western empire-builders.” As often happens in countries undergoing social crisis, the aspirations of the Muslim world’s translators and modernizers, such as Muhammad Abduh, largely had to yield to retrograde currents.[28]

Since completing an MA in literary translation at the University of East Anglia in 2000, Don Bartlett has translated Danish and Norwegian authors including Jo Nesbø, Lars Saabye Christensen and Roy Jacobsen. He has translated Karl Ove Knausgaard’s six-volume autobiography My Struggle, which has been hailed as a literary phenomenon; the fifth instalment, Some Rain Must Fall, was published this year. Bartlett lives in Norfolk with his family.

Wilson, Emily, “A Doggish Translation” (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), pp. 34–36.

I really like this app, but there are many bugs and difficulty when using it. For example, when using the speech function it constantly stops working, saying there is a connection error where there isn’t any. Or if my phone tilts a little bit on its side, the audio will stop and I have to start it all over again. This brings me to my next point: editing text. When you try to edit the text youre translating, its difficult to click it to be able to edit it or even find the spot you want to edit since the space is so small and cluttered. A function that will be really helpful is a pause/play button when youre having the text be read allowed and when the text is being read allowed, it doesnt stop if the device tilts to one side.

Cloud Translation API provides a simple programmatic interface for translating an arbitrary string into any supported language using state-of-the-art Neural Machine Translation. Translation API is highly responsive, so websites and applications can integrate with Translation API for fast, dynamic translation of source text from the source language to a target language (e.g., French to English). Language detection is also available in cases where the source language is unknown. The underlying technology pushes the boundary of Machine Translation and is updated constantly to seamlessly improve translations and introduce new languages and language pairs.

[T]ranslation… is in fact an art both estimable and very difficult, and therefore is not the labor and portion of common minds; [it] should be [practiced] by those who are themselves capable of being actors, when they see greater use in translating the works of others than in their own works, and hold higher than their own glory the service that they render their country.[18]

Nearly three centuries later, in the United States, a comparable role as interpreter was played for the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–6 by Sacagawea. As a child, the Lemhi Shoshone woman had been kidnapped by Hidatsa Indians and thus had become bilingual. Sacagawea facilitated the expedition’s traverse of the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean.[62]

Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating. The Scottish historian Alexander Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Translation (1790), emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries. The same point, but also including listening to the spoken language, had earlier, in 1783, been made by the Polish poet and grammarian Onufry Andrzej Kopczyński.[17]

Similarly, supporters of Aramaic primacy—of the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language—seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much better sense when back-translated to Aramaic: that, for example, some incomprehensible references are in fact Aramaic puns that do not work in Greek.

Translation API supports more than 100 languages and thousands of language pairs. You can send in HTML and receive HTML with translated text back. You don’t need to extract your source text or reassemble the translated content.

Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary, religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide “local color”.

Claude Piron writes that machine translation, at its best, automates the easier part of a translator’s job; the harder and more time-consuming part usually involves doing extensive research to resolve ambiguities in the source text, which the grammatical and lexical exigencies of the target language require to be resolved.[73] Such research is a necessary prelude to the pre-editing necessary in order to provide input for machine-translation software, such that the output will not be meaningless.[70]

Current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of “fidelity” and “transparency”. This has not always been the case, however; there have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation.

“在家工作维基 _商业新闻为建设”

^ Walter Kaiser, “A Hero of Translation” (a review of Jean Findlay, Chasing Lost Time: The Life of C.K. Scott Moncrieff: Soldier, Spy, and Translator), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 55.

For legal and certified documents, we also offer certified translations into English which include a certification letter that is stamped and signed by an official notary, and are accepted by government and professional associations across the country. We cater to individuals and all types of companies alike, ranging from small businesses to Fortune 500 companies around the world.

Fidelity (or “faithfulness”) and transparency, dual ideals in translation, are often (though not always) at odds. A 17th-century French critic coined the phrase “les belles infidèles” to suggest that translations, like women, can be either faithful or beautiful, but not both.[29]

Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires. Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic. It later focused on translating classical Greek and Persian works, as well as some Chinese and Indian texts, into Arabic for scholarly study at major Islamic learning centers, such as the Al-Karaouine (Fes, Morocco), Al-Azhar (Cairo, Egypt), and the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad. In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[78]

French is spoken by over 175 million people world-wide. French is the official language, or one of the official languages, in 33 countries. French is the official language in France, Monaco, Congo, Cote d’Ivorie and Guinea to name a few. French is the second most taught language in the world (English is the first).

The Ancient Greek term for “translation”, μετάφρασις (metaphrasis, “a speaking across”), has supplied English with “metaphrase” (a “literal”, or “word-for-word”, translation)—as contrasted with “paraphrase” (“a saying in other words”, from παράφρασις, paraphrasis).[7] “Metaphrase” corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to “formal equivalence”; and “paraphrase”, to “dynamic equivalence”.[9]

ascertain, determine, find out, find – establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study; “find the product of two numbers”; “The physicist who found the elusive particle won the Nobel Prize”

Translation API supports more than 100 languages and thousands of language pairs. You can send in HTML and receive HTML with translated text back. You don’t need to extract your source text or reassemble the translated content.

My way with fiction generally is to read the first chapter or so then to get down to it. It is far from scholarly. A kinder way of putting it might be that it isn’t pedantic. I listen intently for the timbre of the voice and seek a comparable voice in English that might bring to English the experience a native reader might have in Hungarian. Narrative proceeds from there.

With the Internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page-translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author’s intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.

Significant finesse and know­-how are required to capture subtle nuances across languages and cultures, while also remaining true to a brand’s voice. That was precisely the challenge a leading cruise line posed us in their quest to provide guests with culinary adventures involving fresh creative menus for each of their destinations. Read On

Unlike English, many languages do not employ two separate words to denote the activities of written and live-communication (oral or sign-language) translators.[60] Even English does not always make the distinction, frequently using “translating” as a synonym for “interpreting.”

As with any piece of writing, the most difficult part of the job is editing the drafts. This is slow work in order to ensure that the reader will not stumble or bump into a jarring word or clause. I work straight through to produce a first draft, and then I rewrite until it feels as if it had been written in English.

A major law firm faced a tough challenge as they prepared for complex litigation in a international fraud case requiring the translation of boxes and boxes of evidence from Spanish into English as part of the discovery process. Read On

When I am the reader, and the author considers me able to do the translating myself, he pays me quite a nice compliment–but if he would do the translating for me I would try to get along without the compliment.

The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf… [It] was the popular expression of a translation movement that had begun earlier in the century with military and medical manuals and highlights from the Enlightenment canon. (Montesquieu’s Considerations on the Romans and Fénelon’s Telemachus had been favorites.)[23]

Similarly, when historians suspect that a document is actually a translation from another language, back-translation into that hypothetical original language can provide supporting evidence by showing that such characteristics as idioms, puns, peculiar grammatical structures, etc., are in fact derived from the original language.

Other considerations in writing a singing translation include repetition of words and phrases, the placement of rests and/or punctuation, the quality of vowels sung on high notes, and rhythmic features of the vocal line that may be more natural to the original language than to the target language. A sung translation may be considerably or completely different from the original, thus resulting in a contrafactum.

Views on the possibility of satisfactorily translating poetry show a broad spectrum, depending largely on the degree of latitude to be granted the translator in regard to a poem’s formal features (rhythm, rhyme, verse form, etc.).

The target language should aim for the most common audience. Translators should avoid addressing professional audiences such as those in medicine or any other professional group. They should consider the typical respondent for the instrument being translated and what the respondent will understand when s/he hears the question.

I really like this app, but there are many bugs and difficulty when using it. For example, when using the speech function it constantly stops working, saying there is a connection error where there isn’t any. Or if my phone tilts a little bit on its side, the audio will stop and I have to start it all over again. This brings me to my next point: editing text. When you try to edit the text youre translating, its difficult to click it to be able to edit it or even find the spot you want to edit since the space is so small and cluttered. A function that will be really helpful is a pause/play button when youre having the text be read allowed and when the text is being read allowed, it doesnt stop if the device tilts to one side.

When a historic document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text. An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki (1761–1815), who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in 1804 and 1813–14. Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation that was made by Edmund Chojecki in 1847 from a complete French copy, now lost. French-language versions of the complete Saragossa Manuscript have since been produced, based on extant French-language fragments and on French-language versions that have been back-translated from Chojecki’s Polish version.[38]

A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi (1801–73), who had spent five years in Paris in the late 1820s, teaching religion to Muslim students. After returning to Cairo with the encouragement of Muhammad Ali (1769–1849), the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, al–Tahtawi became head of the new school of languages and embarked on an intellectual revolution by initiating a program to translate some two thousand European and Turkish volumes, ranging from ancient texts on geography and geometry to Voltaire’s biography of Peter the Great, along with the Marseillaise and the entire Code Napoléon. This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times (750–1258).[24]

Cloud Translation API provides a simple programmatic interface for translating an arbitrary string into any supported language using state-of-the-art Neural Machine Translation. Translation API is highly responsive, so websites and applications can integrate with Translation API for fast, dynamic translation of source text from the source language to a target language (e.g., French to English). Language detection is also available in cases where the source language is unknown. The underlying technology pushes the boundary of Machine Translation and is updated constantly to seamlessly improve translations and introduce new languages and language pairs.

When [words] appear… literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since… what is beautiful in one [language] is often barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author’s words: ’tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense.[7]

Audiences in Shakespeare’s time were more accustomed than modern playgoers to actors having longer stage time.[85] Modern translators tend to simplify the sentence structures of earlier dramas, which included compound sentences with intricate hierarchies of subordinate clauses.[86][87]

This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any that has been since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome, famously and literally cautioned against translating “word for word” (verbum pro verbo).[9]

^ French philosopher and writer Gilles Ménage (1613-92) commented on translations by humanist Perrot Nicolas d’Ablancourt (1606-64): “Elles me rappellent une femme que j’ai beaucoup aimé à Tours, et qui était belle mais infidèle.” (“They remind me of a woman whom I greatly loved in Tours, who was beautiful but unfaithful.”) Quoted in Amparo Hurtado Albir, La notion de fidélité en traduction, (The Idea of Fidelity in Translation), Paris, Didier Érudition, 1990, p. 231.

Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase (literal translation) and paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden (1631–1700), who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, “counterparts,” or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language:

Book-title translations can be either descriptive or symbolic. Descriptive book titles, for example Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince), are meant to be informative, and can name the protagonist, and indicate the theme of the book. An example of a symbolic book title is Stieg Larsson’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, whose original Swedish title is Män som hatar kvinnor (Men Who Hate Women). Such symbolic book titles usually indicate the theme, issues, or atmosphere of the work.

Another imponderable is how to imitate the 1-2, 1-2-3 rhythm in which five-syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read. Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting. Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable (character) belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring.[21]

Request : I’d like to see external app usefulness – let it translate stuff that I highlight in other apps such as email or text messages, without the need to copy, change apps, and paste for my translation.

Verb 1. translate – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

Edith Grossman is best known for her translations of works by Mario Vargas Llosa, Alvaro Mutis, Miguel de Cervantes and Gabriel García Márquez (who once commented that he preferred his work in translation). Harold Bloom commended her 2003 translation of Don Quixote for the “extraordinarily high quality of her prose”. She received the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation in 2006 and the Queen Sofía Spanish Institute Translation Prize for her 2008 translation of Antonio Muñoz Molina’s A Manuscript of Ashes. She lives in New York City.

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had conceded defeat in their centuries-old battle to contain the corrupting effects of the printing press, [an] explosion in publishing… ensued. Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one.

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[78]

Gregory Hays, in the course of discussing Roman adapted translations of ancient Greek literature, makes approving reference to some views on the translating of poetry expressed by David Bellos, an accomplished French-to-English translator. Hays writes:

Wilson, Emily, “A Doggish Translation” (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), pp. 34–36.

Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers (although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are Any translation (except machine translation, a different case) must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.

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Such fallibility of the translation process has contributed to the Islamic world’s ambivalence about translating the Quran (also spelled Koran) out of the original Arabic, as received by the prophet Muhammad from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel. During prayers, the Quran, as the miraculous and inimitable word of Allah, is recited only in Arabic. However, as of 1936, it had been translated into at least 102 languages.[92]

Unlike English, many languages do not employ two separate words to denote the activities of written and live-communication (oral or sign-language) translators.[60] Even English does not always make the distinction, frequently using “translating” as a synonym for “interpreting.”

Ambiguity is a concern to both translators and, as the writings of poet and literary critic William Empson have demonstrated, to literary critics. Ambiguity may be desirable, indeed essential, in poetry and diplomacy; it can be more problematic in ordinary prose.[55]

Web-based human translation is generally favored by companies and individuals that wish to secure more accurate translations. In view of the frequent inaccuracy of machine translations, human translation remains the most reliable, most accurate form of translation available.[64] With the recent emergence of translation crowdsourcing,[65][66] translation-memory techniques, and internet applications,[67] translation agencies have been able to provide on-demand human-translation services to businesses, individuals, and enterprises.

Other considerations in writing a singing translation include repetition of words and phrases, the placement of rests and/or punctuation, the quality of vowels sung on high notes, and rhythmic features of the vocal line that may be more natural to the original language than to the target language. A sung translation may be considerably or completely different from the original, thus resulting in a contrafactum.

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘translate.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Among the idées reçues [received ideas] skewered by David Bellos is the old saw that “poetry is what gets lost in translation.” The saying is often attributed to Robert Frost, but as Bellos notes, the attribution is as dubious as the idea itself. A translation is an assemblage of words, and as such it can contain as much or as little poetry as any other such assemblage. The Japanese even have a word (chōyaku, roughly “hypertranslation”) to designate a version that deliberately improves on the original.[81]

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.[1] The English language draws a terminological distinction (not all languages do) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community.

Using the same approach as that outlined in the first step, the instrument will then be translated back to English by an independent translator, whose mother tongue is English and who has no knowledge of the questionnaire. Back-translation will be limited to selected items that will be identified in two ways. The first will be items selected by the WHO based on those terms / concepts that are key to the instrument or those that are suspected to be particularly sensitive to translation problems across cultures. These items will be distributed when the English version of the instrument is distributed. The second will consist of other items that are added on as participating countries identify words or phrases that are problematic. These additional items must be submitted to WHO for review and approval.

When I am the reader, and the author considers me able to do the translating myself, he pays me quite a nice compliment–but if he would do the translating for me I would try to get along without the compliment.

Translation of literary works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, etc.) is considered a literary pursuit in its own right. For example, notable in Canadian literature specifically as translators are figures such as Sheila Fischman, Robert Dickson and Linda Gaboriau, and the Governor General’s Awards annually present prizes for the best English-to-French and French-to-English literary translations.

Instructions should be given in the approach to translating, emphasizing conceptual rather than literal translations, as well as the need to use natural and acceptable language for the broadest audience. The following general guidelines should be considered in this process:

The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax, and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions. Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism, writes Christopher de Bellaigue, “with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today…. No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness. It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world.” One of the neologisms that, in a way, came to characterize the infusion of new ideas via translation was “darwiniya”, or “Darwinism”.[26]

One famous mistranslation of a Biblical text is the rendering of the Hebrew word קֶרֶן (keren), which has several meanings, as “horn” in a context where it more plausibly means “beam of light”: as a result, for centuries artists, including sculptor Michelangelo, have rendered Moses the Lawgiver with horns growing from his forehead.

A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity (faithfulness) is said to be “faithful”; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, “idiomatic”. Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive.

On arrival in England my parents insisted we speak English from the start. We went to language classes for refugees and while my parents spoke Hungarian to each other they spoke English to us, though my mother was only just learning the language herself. This was hard for my younger brother but, at eight years old, I must have managed all right; within a few months, I was near the top of the class at an English school in London. And so it went on for several years of school, without Hungarian books, without Hungarian friends, my Hungarian forgotten.

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An important role in history has been played by translation of religious Such translations may be influenced by tension between the text and the religious values the translators wish to convey. For example, Buddhist monks who translated the Indian sutras into Chinese occasionally adjusted their translations to better reflect China’s distinct culture, emphasizing notions such as filial piety.

^ Emily Wilson writes that “translation always involves interpretation, and [requires] every translator… to think as deeply as humanly possible about each verbal, poetic, and interpretative choice.” Emily Wilson, “A Doggish Translation” (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), p. 36.

When I started writing poetry at the age of 18 it was natural to write in English. I went to art school for five years, writing all the time, lucky in my mentors, and had published three books by the time of my first adult return to Hungary in 1984 at the age of 35. It was then that I was asked to translate poetry from Hungarian to English. I needed help at first but within a couple of years I was working on my own. The poetry I translated taught me a lot and fed into my own poetry. I learned other voices and ways with verse. Then came fiction.

Translation API can seamlessly scale with almost any volume. We provide a generous daily quota and allow you to set limits below that amount. If a higher quota is needed, you can simply request an increase.

The necessity of making choices, and therefore of interpretation, in translating[52] (and in other fields of human endeavor) stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe. Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that “virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous, often in multiple ways. Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice.”[53] An example of linguistic ambiguity is the “pronoun disambiguation problem” (“PDP”): a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence—such as “he”, “she” or “it”—refers.[54] Such disambiguation is not infallible by a human, either.

Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation, however, ignores the fact that communication in human language is context-embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error; therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human.[72]

We have used Translation Cloud on a couple of our transactions and have always received superior service and turnaround times. We have had documents translated from Italian to English and Swedish to English, including a number of financial documents. All were of the highest quality and included a certificate verifying translation by a professional. Our Account Executive, is friendly, knowledgeable and very prompt in his responses. We will continue to use their services for any translations in the future!

Such modern rendering is applied either to literature from classical languages such as Latin or Greek, notably to the Bible (see “Modern English Bible translations”), or to literature from an earlier stage of the same language, as with the works of William Shakespeare (which are largely understandable by a modern audience, though with some difficulty) or with Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (which is not generally understandable by modern readers).

translate, interpret, render – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with reworking of the machine translation by a human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system.[71]

By contrast, “formal equivalence” (sought via “literal” translation) attempts to render the text literally, or “word for word” (the latter expression being itself a word-for-word rendering of the classical Latin verbum pro verbo)—if necessary, at the expense of features natural to the target language.

French is spoken by over 175 million people world-wide. French is the official language, or one of the official languages, in 33 countries. French is the official language in France, Monaco, Congo, Cote d’Ivorie and Guinea to name a few. French is the second most taught language in the world (English is the first).

A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi (1801–73), who had spent five years in Paris in the late 1820s, teaching religion to Muslim students. After returning to Cairo with the encouragement of Muhammad Ali (1769–1849), the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, al–Tahtawi became head of the new school of languages and embarked on an intellectual revolution by initiating a program to translate some two thousand European and Turkish volumes, ranging from ancient texts on geography and geometry to Voltaire’s biography of Peter the Great, along with the Marseillaise and the entire Code Napoléon. This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times (750–1258).[24]

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The book I am proudest of is a book of poetry called The Solitudes by a 17th-century poet, whose last name is Góngora, and it is the most difficult poetry that I have ever run across in any language. Very complex structure. And it’s absolutely beautiful, gorgeous poetry. And I thought, oh my God, if I can do this, I can leap tall buildings in a single bound – there’s nothing I can’t do.

translate, interpret, render – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

Such fallibility of the translation process has contributed to the Islamic world’s ambivalence about translating the Quran (also spelled Koran) out of the original Arabic, as received by the prophet Muhammad from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel. During prayers, the Quran, as the miraculous and inimitable word of Allah, is recited only in Arabic. However, as of 1936, it had been translated into at least 102 languages.[92]

This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any that has been proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome, famously and literally cautioned against translating “word for word” (verbum pro verbo).[9]

Wills, Garry, “A Wild and Indecent Book” (review of David Bentley Hart, The New Testament: A Translation, Yale University Press, 577 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 2 (8 February 2018), pp. 34-35. Discusses some pitfalls in interpreting and translating the New Testament

The first important translation in the West was that of the Septuagint, a collection of Jewish Scriptures translated into early Koine Greek in Alexandria between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. The dispersed Jews had forgotten their ancestral language and needed Greek versions (translations) of their Scriptures.[75]

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In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to large-scale ongoing translation efforts spanning well over a thousand years. The Tangut Empire was especially efficient in such efforts; exploiting the then newly invented block printing, and with the full support of the government (contemporary sources describe the Emperor and his mother personally contributing to the translation effort, alongside sages of various nationalities), the Tanguts took mere decades to translate volumes that had taken the Chinese centuries to render.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation. Translators of literary, religious or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text. A translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide “local color”.

(fig) → übertragen; to translate feelings into action → Gefühle in die Tat umsetzen; to translate a novel into a film → aus einem Roman einen Film machen; could you translate that into cash terms? → lässt sich das geldmäßig ausdrücken?

Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets (and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators) that are associated primarily with absences of subject, number, and tense.[22]

The app itself is amazing, however recently new translation apps have allowed one to simply type what they wish to translate into their messaging system(such as iMessages or WhatsApp)and it automatically translates it into the language you want with a simple click of the button… this is helpful when speaking to a person from another country. I like Google translate more than those apps, and feel they could do a better job then those apps. The apps I’m speaking of have subscription fees, I don’t believe this is the right way to do it because they turn many people from the app, and a down payment (if absolutely necessary) would be a much more attractive alternative. I suggest to Google that if you read this to take these words into mind when thinking on how to make the app significantly better than it already is.

Interpreters have sometimes played crucial roles in history. A prime example is La Malinche, also known as Malintzin, Malinalli and Doña Marina, an early-16th-century Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast. As a child she had been sold or given to Maya slave-traders from Xicalango, and thus had become bilingual. Subsequently, given along with other women to the invading Spaniards, she became instrumental in the Spanish conquest of Mexico, acting as interpreter, adviser, intermediary and lover to Hernán Cortés.[61]

In recent decades, prominent advocates of such “non-transparent” translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman, who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,[31] and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti, who has called on translators to apply “foreignizing” rather than domesticating translation strategies.[32]

Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”. He published his back-translation in a 1903 volume together with his English-language original, the French translation, and a “Private History of the ‘Jumping Frog’ Story”. The latter included a synopsized adaptation of his story that Twain stated had appeared, unattributed to Twain, in a Professor Sidgwick’s Greek Prose Composition (p. 116) under the title, “The Athenian and the Frog”; the adaptation had for a time been taken for an independent ancient Greek precursor to Twain’s “Jumping Frog” story.[37]

Do you have a WordPress website that you’d like to make available to speakers of foreign languages, but aren’t quite sure how to start? Then look no further, as we’ve prepared a simple, step-by-step guide below teaching you everything you need to know to get your site translated quickly and with no coding required!…

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translate, interpret, render – restate (words) from one language into another language; “I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.”; “Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?”; “She rendered the French poem into English”; “He translates for the U.N.”

Such fallibility of the translation process has contributed to the Islamic world’s ambivalence about translating the Quran (also spelled Koran) out of the original Arabic, as received by the prophet Muhammad from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel. During prayers, the Quran, as the miraculous and inimitable word of Allah, is recited only in Arabic. However, as of 1936, it had been translated into at least 102 languages.[92]

Meanwhile, in Renaissance Italy, a new period in the history of translation had opened in Florence with the arrival, at the court of Cosimo de’ Medici, of the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus Pletho shortly before the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). A Latin translation of Plato’s works was undertaken by Marsilio Ficino. This and Erasmus’ Latin edition of the New Testament led to a new attitude to translation. For the first time, readers demanded rigor of rendering, as philosophical and religious beliefs depended on the exact words of Plato, Aristotle and Jesus.[77]

Unedited machine translation is publicly available through tools on the Internet such as Google Translate, Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict. These produce rough translations that, under favorable circumstances, “give the gist” of the source text.

Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—”literal” where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial “values” (e.g., style, verse concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.[9]

I really like this app, but there are many bugs and difficulty when using it. For example, when using the speech function it constantly stops working, saying there is a connection error where there isn’t any. Or if my phone tilts a little bit on its side, the audio will stop and I have to start it all over again. This brings me to my next point: editing text. When you try to edit the text youre translating, its difficult to click it to be able to edit it or even find the spot you want to edit since the space is so small and cluttered. A function that will be really helpful is a pause/play button when youre having the text be read allowed and when the text is being read allowed, it doesnt stop if the device tilts to one side.

Edith Grossman is best known for her translations of works by Mario Vargas Llosa, Alvaro Mutis, Miguel de Cervantes and Gabriel García Márquez (who once commented that he preferred his work in translation). Harold Bloom commended her 2003 translation of Don Quixote for the “extraordinarily high quality of her prose”. She received the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation in 2006 and the Queen Sofía Spanish Institute Translation Prize for her 2008 translation of Antonio Muñoz Molina’s A Manuscript of Ashes. She lives in New York City.

Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms, and vocabulary.

Galassi, Jonathan (June 2000). “FEATURE: Como conversazione: on translation”. The Paris Review. Antonio Weiss. 42 (155): 255–312. Poets and critics Seamus Heaney, Charles Tomlinson, Tim Parks, and others discuss the theory and practice of translation.

Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of “word-for-word translation”—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word. Nevertheless, “metaphrase” and “paraphrase” may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation.[10]

Other writers, among many who have made a name for themselves as literary translators, include Vasily Zhukovsky, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Vladimir Nabokov, Jorge Luis Borges, Robert Stiller and Haruki Murakami.

Instructions should be given in the approach to translating, emphasizing conceptual rather than literal translations, as well as the need to use natural and acceptable language for the broadest audience. The following general guidelines should be considered in this process:

Where I have taken away some of [the original authors’] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[30]

Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called “computer-aided translation,” “machine-aided human translation” (MAHT) and “interactive translation,” is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.

Last week, I mentioned this experience to Ann Goldstein, the acclaimed translator of the Italian novelist Elena Ferrante. She laughed. “I know what you mean,” she said, down the line from New York. “My feeling about Proust is that he’s Scott-Moncrieff [C K Scott-Moncrieff, who published his English translation of A La recherche du temps perdu as Remembrance of Things Past in the 1920s]. I haven’t read the newer translations – but I don’t want to. I’m very attached to his, even though people always say ‘he did this’ or ‘he did that’.” If Goldstein is aware that for many people she will always, now, be the one and only translator of My Brilliant Friend and the other novels that make up Ferrante’s best-selling Neapolitan quartet, she gave no sign.

From Scandinavian crime to Elena Ferrante and Karl Ove Knausagaard, it’s boom time for foreign fiction in the UK. But the right translation is crucial, says Rachel Cooke, while, below, some of the best translators tell us their secrets